LAWS11060 Study Guide - Final Guide: Myer, New Ferry, False Imprisonment

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27 Jul 2018
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ASSAULT&
!"#$%%"&'()*"+,&+"-./"0000000"&12)3+"+24523/+$+)+*"&//&)%+6"
789:"7;"!<77;"is&on&P&to&prove&D&intended&to&create&apprehension&of&imminent&harmful&of&offensive&contact&in&P&and&on&D&to&
prove&lack&of&intent&or&negligence.&(Rixon'v'Star'City'Pty'Ltd)'
=>[email protected]:"7;"@A="BC9:="7;"[email protected]"Assault&occurs&when&a&person&intentionally&creates&apprehension&of&imminent&harmful&or&
offensive&contact&in&another.&(Rixon'v'Star'City'Pty'Ltd)'
-D<[email protected]"@A<[email protected]"–&Not&an&issue&as&D&clearly…P.&(Hutchins'v'Maughan)'
[email protected][email protected]8"E"Required&as&per&Rixon'v'Star'City'Pty'Ltd.'Yes/No&
C!!<=A=8:D78"7;"D[email protected]"AC<?;9>47;;=8:DF="[email protected]@"&
(@=:@"is&based&on&a&‘reasonable&person’&in&P’s&position.)&
P&will&argue&that&the&threat&will&amount&to&assault&if&P&apprehends&physical&contact,&even&if&a&reasonable&person&would&not.&
(Macpherson'v'Beath)'(Ie:&link&to&what&the&D&did/said&in&the&facts)&
D&will&argue&that&the&threat&P&needs&to&establish&that&a&reasonable&person&in&P’s&position&would&have&apprehended&physical&contact.&
(Barton'v'Armstrong)&
Some&threats&‘can&create&the&apprehension&[of&imminent&unlawful&force]&even&if&it&is&made&clear&that&violence&may&occur&in&the&
future,&at&times&unspecified&and&uncertain’&(Barton'v'Armstrong)'
D&could&argue&that&X&gesture&is&not&an&assault&as&it&is&accompanied&by&words&which&clearly&indicate&that,&D&did&not&intend&to&use&force.&&
(Rozsa'v'Samuels)'
Threat&could&have&been&carried&out&at&any&time&in&the&future.&Apprehension&is&‘present&and&continuing’,&even&though&the&harm&is&
threatened&for&some&unspecified&time&in&the&future&per&White&J.'(Zanker'v'Vartzokas)'
Threat&was&from&afar&via&threatening&phone&call.&(Barton'v'Armstrong;'R'v'Ireland)'
Mental&state&of&D.&If&the&defendant&intends&to&create&the&apprehension&of&attack&in&the&mind&of&the&P,&this&is&sufficient&even&if&D&is&
mentally&unstable.'
BATTERY&
!"#$%%"&'()*"+,&+"-./"&5+$23/"+,&+"$35%)H*"000I"000"J"000"#*'*"*&5,"$3/+&35*/"2K"L&++*'M6"
789:"7;"!<77;"is&on&P&to&prove&directness,&whilst&the&D&must&prove&lack&of&intent&or&negligence.&(McHale'v'Watson)'
=>[email protected]:"7;"@A="BC9:="7;"[email protected]"Battery&is&a&direct&act&of&the&defendant&which&causes&some&physical&contact&with&the&person&of&
the&P&without&the&P’s&consent.&(Collins'v'Wilcock)'
-D<[email protected]=::"N"Not&an&issue&as&D&clearly…P.&(Hutchins'v'Maughan)'
!AO:DBC>"[email protected]@"–&Harm&is&not&required,&the&least&touching&may&suffice.&(Collins'v'Wilcock).'“…any&touching&of&another&person,&
however&slight&may&amount&to&a&battery…”&(E.g.&As&this&clearly&happened&in&each&instance&to&P,&the&issue&here&is&consent)&
In&addition,&the&touching&need&not&be&hostile.&(Boughey'v'R;'Rixon'v'Star'City'Pty'Ltd).&Therefore,&P&does&not&need&to&prove&the&
touching&was&hostile&in&order&to&establish&battery.&
BUT,&D&can&argue&that&touching&must&be&hostile&(Wilson'v'Pringle)'But&this&is&from&QB,&so&it’s&persuasive&authority.&P&could&still&argue&
hostility&is&not&the&same&as&illZwill&or&malevolence.&
&
Unbroken&series&of&consequences&set&in&motion&by&D’s&act&which&causes&contact&with&P.&(Scott'v'Shepherd)'
B78:[email protected]"is&a&complete&defence.&(Collins'v'Wilcock;'Rixon'v'Star'City'Pty'Ltd).&Did&P&consent&to&any?&(E.g.&if&it&was&on&public&transport)&
**The&onus&is&on&D&to&establish&that&there&was&consent.&(McNamara'v'Duncan).&
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