Rome, first city to hit 1 million people, 100 ce. From the latin urbs for city- as distinct from rus , or rural. Beneath the walls, outside the walls of the city. Cities in history tend to have walls as they were vulnerable. Citizens had to pay to live in city taxes, be part of the city s defense. Roman cities are all part of network that exist to feed the central city. The cities are part of a huge inter-land that are about stocking the people of rome itself. Roman towns died out for many reason: Aquileia, italy: fallen city, no government left, diseases. Example is the gridiron patter, which was popular in the 19th century. Distinguishing the culture/empire/religion/country of the city by the grid system. Dominated urban morphology since the 19th century. Easy for people to navigate around the city - especially with familiar objects and landmarks in space. Seen as the foundation of western civilization.