CHEM1100 Study Guide - Lithium Hydroxide, Aqueous Solution, Ammonium Chloride

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25 Nov 2013

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Acid: a substance which produces hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Base: a substance which produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Acid or base properties of a substance relate to the position of equilibrium. Position of equilibrium defines the strength of an acid. * in aqueous solution h+ = h3o+ (strongest acid that can exist in water) Strong acid ionises completely in water to give quantitative formation of h3o+ acid dissociation concentration large i. e. hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric. Weak acid exists mostly as non-dissociated molecules in water (equilibrium equation) acid dissociation concentration very small. Strong base reacts completely with water to give quantitative formation of oh- i. e. lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide. Weak base reacts incompletely with water to form less than stoichiometric amounts of oh- Every acid (ha) has a conjugate base related to it by loss of a proton (aq) + oh- (aq) Every base (b) has a conjugate acid related to it by gain of a proton.

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