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ASIA1025 Study Guide - Final Guide: Erlitou Culture, Hoabinhian, Fish Hook

8 pages51 viewsWinter 2018

Department
Asian Studies
Course Code
ASIA1025
Professor
Professor Jack Fenner
Study Guide
Final

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ASIA 1025: Asia & the Pacific: Power, Diversity and Change
COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY PART 2
Week 4 Lecture 1
States and Nationalism
The world is now organized into states
It isn’t inevitable and natural
LT: Archaeology
MT: Political History
ST: Politics, International Relations
Bands
Tribes
Chiefdoms
States
Group Size
10-100
Up to ~5000
5000-20000
>20000
Social
Organization
Egalitarian
Informal
Leadership
Segmentary
society
*money savings
Hierarchy with
Hereditary
Leader
Class-based
Hierarchy with
King
Economic
Organization
Mobile Hunter-
gatherers
Farmers,
herders
Centralized
distribution
*collect tributes
*share with
residents during
celebration
Centralized
bureaucracy
*standardized
money
Conflict
Small scale raids
Raids by groups
High-ranking
warriors,
fortifications
Armies
Archaeological
Examples
Everyone
until~10000yrs
ago
Hoabinhian
stone tools
Shell fish hook
Millet farmers
(Yellow River)
Hongshan
pottery sherds
Gong Son (Red
River)
Dong Son-type
Drum
House of Taga
Indus Valley
Civilization
(Harappa)
Erlitou (Yellow
R) (bronze plate
with turquoise
inlay)
Angkor (Mekong
R.)
Modern/Recent
Examples
Penan (Borneo,
Malaysia)
Aboriginal Aust.
New Guinea
Highlanders
Polynesia
Modern
countries
Summary of archaeology of states
o Primary states develop occasionally
Our region: Erlitou, Indus Valley, Tonga
Elsewhere :
Mesopotamia (Iraq, Turkey)
Egypt
Soninke Kingdom (West Africa)
Maya (Central America)
Inca (South America)
No consistent cause or reason identified
o Secondary states develop after contact with primary
SEA
Mix of local and foreign characteristics
Any social organization can develop/be forced into a secondary state
o States are not forever
o States are good for elite, not so much for others
o No distinction drawn between states and nations
Political History
o Nation-state
Aspects of both a state and a nation
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Sovereignty and a monopoly on coercion
Population with shared myths, history, culture, rights and duties
o Nation-states depend upon Nationalism
Devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation
Rather than to clan, local ruler, religious organization, ethnicity etc.
Aim: Nation-state becomes indistinguishable from nation
Origin of Nation-states
o Primary nation-state development: 3 key events/processes
Treaty of Westphalia: AD1648
Boundaries : Area that the king can rule
Allegiance : To whoever the ruler can authorize
Sovereignty : Ruler can do whatever he wants within his territory
American and French Revolutions
(State legitimacy derived from the will of the people - election)
Modernity Break down the old allegiances
(Capitalism/Bureaucracy/Industrialisation/Urbanisation/Secularism/Mass
Literacy)
Most old allegiances decline, nationalism increases
(allegiance to your nation)
(your nation is your nation-state if you fit the dominant ethnicity)
o Secondary Nation-states
Violence
Europe : Napoleonic Wars
Rest of the world : Colonization
Exporting Modernity
Ideas: sovereignty, rights and nation-hood
Participation in capitalism, secularism
Boundaries that never before existed
o Decolonization
People tend to think themselves as a nation, but not the nation of the colonizer
Shifts in economic and moral attitudes
Struggle: Usually led by small elite
Sukarno (Indonesia)
Gandhi (India)
Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam)
Once colonizer gone:
Elite leading decolonization now lead government
o Establish their ethnic/social group as dominant
o Want to maintain/maximize their territory
Rest of the world: easier to deal with one gov.
Modernity accepted by all sides
Results:
Colony becomes a nation-state
If can’t win allegiance throughout territory, may break into multiple
smaller states
Summary
o State-level society is one of several successful human social organizations
o A world order of nation-states was not planned
More or less stumbled into by a handful of states
Exported to the rest of the world through violence and sweep of modernity
Week 4 Readings
Vu, Tuong SEA’s New Nationalism: Causes and Significance
Explains the post-Cold War surge of nationalism in SEA
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Discusses its significance for regional peace and cooperation
Factors of the growth of nationalism in SEA
o Failure of earlier nationalist movements to fully deliver their promises
o A shift in the international and regional order (end of cold war and rise of China)
o A change in domestic order (political liberalization and democratization)
Cambodians, Thais, Vietnamese and Pilipino
o Most important mission of the new nationalism: Defence of national territories
Another impact of the new nationalism
o Reconciliation of compatriots who belonged to opposing camps in the Cold War years
and who were brainwashed with Cold War ideologies and their hateful messages
Inequality provides the fertile ground for nationalist envy (in poorer countries), arrogance (in
richer neighbors) and eventually hostilities.
Week 5 Lecture 1
Introduction to Globalization
Globalization
o Dynamics of globalization processes across time and space
o Global interdependencies and interconnections
o Triumph of markets over governments
o China and India Great winners of globalization (positive economic effects)
o Central role of politics in unleashing the forces of globalization
o Accentuating people’s sense of nationality
o Cultural practices depend on contemporary globalization
o K-pop music
o Ecological effects of globalization are increasingly recognized as the most significant
and potentially life-threatening for the world Japan’s earthquake
o Leading to greater global inequality
o Great beauty no one is in control
o Engine that lifts people out of hardship and misery, not a force that holds them down
o Refers to the expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across
world-time and world-space
Creation of new social networks
Multiplication of existing connections
Expansion & stretching of social relations, activities and connections
(Trading and financial activities)
Intensification & acceleration of social exchanges and activities
Processes that involve both objective & subjective levels of experience
Think about global connections
Information equally shared
o Processes that encompasses a multitude of scales, causations, chronologies, impacts and
trajectories
Economic Globalization
o Intensification and stretching of economic connections
o Internationalization of trade and finance
o Increasing power of transnational corporations and large investment banks
o Enhanced roles of international economic institutions
Political Globalization
o Intensification and expansion of political interactions
o Involves the decline of bounded territory as a meaningful concept for understanding
political and social change
o Trans-border links below the level of the nation-state
o Proliferation of multilateral organizations and agreements at the regional levels
Cultural Globalization
o Intensification and expansion of cultural flows across the globe
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