Lecture 1 Measurement, Inspection and Testing.pdf

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Curtin University
Mechanical Engineering
Alokesh Pramanik

Lecture 1: Measurement, Inspection and Testing 19 August 2013 12:27 PM • Safety First • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes • Definitions • The Three Principles of Measurements • MeasurementStandards • Measurementand Gauging Tools • DVD on Measurementand Gauging Manufacturing • Manufacturing: Economicterm for making goods and services available to satisfy human needs • Implies creating value by applying useful mental and physical labour. It is a value adding process • Critical to country's welfare and standard of living as this is determined by the goods and services that are available to its people. • Represents 20-30%of the value of goods and services produced in industrialised countries • A complexactivity involving people with a broad range of disciplines and skills as well as a wide variety of machinery, equipment and tools with various levels of automation,including computer,robots, and material handling equipment. • The aim is the reduce the time to market while maintaining better quality and higher productivity at the lowest possible cost. • The overall objectiveis to supply a product that maximisescustomer satisfaction at minimum cost. Basic Manufacturing Processes • Machining (Metal removal)Processes:Turning, milling, drilling, grinding, sawing, broaching and shaping • Casting, Foundry or Moulding Processes:Sand Casting, Investment Casting and die casting • Forming and MetalworkingProcesses:Hot Working (Rolling, forging, extrusion and drawing), Cold Working (bending, shearing and sheet metal forming) • Joining and Assembly: Welding, soldering and brazing • Surface Treatments:Debarring, painting and galvanizing • Others: Inspection, testing, material handling and packaging Measurement,Inspection and Testing • Measurement:Process of assigning a number to an attribute or phenomenonaccording to a rule or set of rules. Can also be used to refer to the result obtained • Inspection: Whether the desired objectivesstated by the designer in the specifications have been achieved • Testing: Evaluates product quality or performance.Try to ensure there are no defects to impair performance,(destructive tests, non-destructive tests, road tests and overload tests). Measureable Characteristics • Time • Weight • Pressure • Temperature • Hardness • Part Dimensions(Part size and shape; size, form, orientation and location of part features) Core Concepts • Precision:Quality of being sharply or clearly defined; how closelythe indicated value matches • Precision:Quality of being sharply or clearly defined; how closelythe indicated value matches the true value. • Resolution:Smallest graduation of the instrument. • Accuracy: the degree to which an indicated value confirms to an acceptable standard value • Repeatability:Degree of consistency achieved with a measurementwhen using to measure the same dimension several times. • Reproducibility: degree of consistency achieved when used by different people to measure the same dimension several times. Three Principles of Measurement • First Principle: When measuring the dimensions, one must know its temperature • Second Principle: Avoid the application of force. Non-contactmethods of measurementare preferred to contact methods. • Third Principle: The expected precision of the measuring instrument must be 5 to 10 times higher than the expected precision of the measured object. First Principle • Temperatureaffects the length of all objects and materials • The coefficient of linear
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