2204HSL - Mid Term Exam Revision.docx

11 Pages
181 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Dept Tourism,Sport and Hotel Management
Course
2204HSL
Professor
Lisa Beesley
Semester
Fall

Description
2204HSL – Sustainable Tourism - Mid Semester Revision Understand the answers to the questions below: 1. Define sustainable tourism. 2. Why is sustainable tourism important? 3. What is an anthropocentric approach to ecotourism? 4. What is a biocentric approach to ecotourism? 5. What is the triple-bottom line of sustainability? 6. What do we call development that is sustainable in economic and social terms, but not environmental terms? 7. What are the three stages of global tourism growth? 8. What are the four platforms in Jafari’s Platform Model? 9. What are the stages in Butler’s Tourism Lifecycle Model? 10. What is Greenwashing? 11. Describe Cohen’s (1972) typology of tourists. 12. What is social tourism? 13. Describe what Prescriptive and Descriptive approaches to tourism are. 14. What are some of the negative social outcomes that tourists might experience? 15. Describe the different relationships among elements within systems theory. 16. What are the classifications of tourists according to Plogg (1973)? 17. Why are there so few Marine Protected Areas? 18. What is the problem with placing economic value on nature? 19. What are direct ecological costs of tourism? 20. What are indirect ecological costs of tourism? 21. What are impact management strategies? 22. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Tourism Codes of Conduct? 23. What are conflict issues with host communities and tourism? 24. What are the factors underlying the success of community-based tourism? 2204HSL – Sustainable Tourism - Mid Semester Revision 1. Define sustainable tourism. Tourism development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own demands (Brundtland) 2. Why is sustainable tourism important? Sustainable Tourism as part of a development strategy Third World countries are especially interested in international tourism, and many believe it brings countries a large selection of economic benefits including employment opportunities, small business development, and increased in payments of foreign exchange. Many assume that more money is gained through developing luxury goods and services in spite of the fact that this increases a countries dependency on imported products, foreign investments and expatriate skills. This classic 'trickle down' financial strategy rarely makes its way down to benefit people at a grassroots level. It has been said that the economic benefits of large-scale tourism are not doubted but that the backpacker or budget traveller sector is often neglected as a potential growth sector by Third World governments. This sector brings significant non-economic benefits which could help to empower and educate the communities involved in this sector. "Aiming 'low' builds upon the skills of the local population, promotes self-reliance, and develops the confidence of community members in dealing with outsiders, all signs of empowerment" and all of which aid in the overall development of a nation. 3. What is an anthropocentric approach to ecotourism? Anthropocentric (weak sustainability) – one extreme of weak sustainability - this approach holds that nature is just a provider of resources for human, and people are the most important thing in the world. The sustainability of ecological systems is viewed as important only as far as required for the sustainability of the human component. Tourism is about rapidly develop, make as much money as we can, etc. Realm of compromise - in the middle so most people hold this approach, which is combination of the two above - do not exploit the environment, but not really going deep into sustainability. for example, you try not to litter the streets, but you are not so in love with sustainability to use only bicycle to travel around the place u came for holiday. this means- you are in that realm of compromise. 4. What is a Biocentric approach to ecotourism? Biocentric - another extreme of very strong sustainability - holds that we should preserve the environment, and create as much benefits to host communities as we can, eliminating poverty for example. 2204HSL – Sustainable Tourism - Mid Semester Revision 5. What is the triple-bottom line of sustainability? Economic sustainability - concept of the enterprise supporting jobs and delivering income to communities in the long term. Social sustainability - sharing benefits fairly and equitably + respecting the quality of life of communities + human rights Environmental sustainability - managing of resources and managing and conserving the environment + notion ‘limit to growth’. 6. What do we call development that is sustainable in economic and social terms, but not environmental terms? If social and environmental needs are met - bearable If social and economic - equitable: people are benefiting from tourism and benefits are equally distributed but it will not last for long if we don’t sustain the environment If environmental and economic - viable but if we break the social structure of the host community, it will not last for long 7. What are the three stages of global tourism growth? 1. Most developed countries were travelling b/w each other (1950s - mainly US people->to Europe) 2. Most developed countries travelled->to least developed (mid 1970) = looking for ‘experience’ 3. Least developed countries become increasingly wealthy->travel b/w each other and also travel to developed countries. 8. What are the four platforms in Jafari’s Platform Model? Advocacy - emphasis of benefits of tourism - all tourism is good tourism, focused on economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits. - Creates direct/indirect revenues - Creates employment - Stimulate regional development - Promotes cross-cultural understanding - Provides incentives to preserve culture, natural environment Cautionary - emphasis on costs of tourism - recognize negative impact of tourism. - Exploitation of resources and people - Revenues eroded by seasonality and costs - Leakages created by importing - Employment is low paid, seasonal - Promotes cross-cultural conflict (+Culture is commodified ) Adaptancy platform - emphasis on solutions and alternatives - Emerges of alternative tourism(options alternative to mass tourism )example - Ecotourism, community based tourism. Small scale – contribute to community. Knowledge-based platform - holistic, systems based approach. Not all alternative/niche tourism is sustainable. Not all mass tourism is unsustainable. It is not the size of tourism development, it is principles by which it is managed and developed. 2204HSL – Sustainable Tourism - Mid Semester Revision 9. What are the stages in Butler’s Tourism Lifecycle Model? Exploration (Advocacy) - at this stage there is limited visitation by a few adventurous people with a high degree of contact with locals and use of their facilities, but with very little social and economic impact. (allocentrics, explorers) Involvement (Advocacy) • increasing visitation • locals offer facilities primarily or exclusively for visitors • contact with locals is still high • a tourism destination and season emerges • advertising is initiated Development (Advocacy) • outside investment is attracted to the destination • well-defined tourism market emerge • import labour and auxiliary facilities and services become necessary to support the rapidly growing tourism industry • decline in local participation and control Consolidation (Cautionary) the major portion of local economy is tied to tourism and dominated by major chains and franchises (ex. McDonalds) • visitation levels continue to increase, but level of growth falls • marketing and advertising efforts are widened to extend the tourism season and attract more distant visitors • older facilities are now below standard and mostly undesirable Stagnation (Mix of adaptive & knowledge based) • capacity levels are reached and exceeded, resulting in economic, social and environmental problems. • reliance of repeat visitations and conventions for business. • artificial attractions supersede the natural or cultural • the destination is no longer considered fashionable (organized mass tourists, psychocentrics) Decline (first part of stage 6) (Mix of adaptive & knowledge based) • tourism are at newer destinations • tourism establishments become replaced by non-tourism facilities • this disengagement results into even less appeal for visitors • local involvement may increase again as the cost of facilities decreases • the destination becomes a tourism ‘slum’ or loose tourism function Rejuvenation (second part of stage 6) (Mix of adaptive & knowledge based) - either a new set of artificial attractions are created or a previously unexploited natural resource is established. 10.What is Greenwashing? Greenwashing is the practice of making an unsubstantiated or misleading claim about the environmental benefits of a product, service, technology or company practice. 2204HSL – Sustainable Tourism - Mid Semester Revision 11.Describe Cohen’s (1972) typology of tourists. 1) Organised mass tourist - package tour, where itineraries are fixed, stops are planned and guided and all major decisions are left to organizer. Familiarity is at maximum and novelty at minimum. 2) Individual mass tourist - tour is not entirely planned by others, and tourist have some control over time allocation, but all the major arrangements are made through a travel intermediary. (remains much in the ‘environmental bubble’ of home country. 3) Explorer - plan their own trips and try to avoid highly developed tourism attractions. Novelty dominates, but tourist is not fully integrated with host society. 4) Drifter - plan their own trips alone, avoid developed tourist attractions and live with members of host community. Novelty dominant, familiarity disappears. 12.What is social tourism? Social tourism -the objective of social tourism is to ensure tourism is accessible for all people. Special efforts are made to include members of society that otherwise would be prevented from participating in tourist travel for reasons such as economic hardship, or physical or psychological disabilities. 13.Describe what Prescriptive and Descriptive approaches to tourism are. Prescriptive: demonstrate how planning and policy making should occur relative to pre- established standards (working towards an ideal solution to tourism planning and development) Descriptive: document the way in which the policy process actually occur and explains about what happened during the decision-making, planning and policy making process (acknowleging the dynamics and complexity in the environment) 14.What are some of the negative social outcomes that tourists might experience? Negative social (meaning quality of life) outcomes tourists might experience? Negative aesthetic issues (deterioration of environmental condition, trails, campsites, facilities, litter.) Hygiene issues Depreciative visitor behaviour: vandalism, graffiti, rowdiness Drug and alcohol problem Other criminal behaviours Other health problems – illness/accidents Visitor safety: need for effective risk management Conflict: between different stakeholder groups Conflict: between different tourist user groups Crowding/traffic congestion/parking problems Noise 2204HSL – Sustainable Tourism - Mid Semester Revision Social stress - as tourists and hosts have to share/compete for limited number of facilities and resources. 15.Describe the different relationships among elements within systems theory. Relationship among elements Series relationship - on thing leads to another (ex. tsunami impact economy) Parallel relationship - one thing will change multiple things at a time (two elements are affected by another element) Feedback relationship - A changes B and C, but then B forces change on A (element influences itself) 16.What are the classifications of tourists according to Plogg (1973)? Plogg (1973) classification of tourism allocentric - adventurous, self-confident, always seeking new destinations (come to destination as it is emerging, early visitor). midcentric - displaying characteristics of both - ‘the bulk of the market’ psychocentric - seeking familiar destinations and security - prefer ‘the known’ (come to mature destination) 17.Why are there so few Marine Protected Areas? To protect marine areas (to achieve their long-term conservation) governments can define activities and intensity of activities that are permissible in those areas. However  Multiple use - conflicts generally being based on competition between users, for example gas extraction or conservation? Marine tourism (whale watching, snorkelling, scuba diving and boating) or conservation?  Since the damage done to marine environments is not always as visible as the destruction done to the land, it
More Less

Related notes for 2204HSL

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit