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EDUC - Education
Dr Kerry- Ann O' Sullivan

EDUC260- REVISION NOTES Cueing systems for meaning: Semantic knowledge of the world and the word Syntactic knowledge of the structure of the language Grapho-phonic knowledge of sound-letter relationships Three level guide for reading comprehension (IMPORTANT): Literal: here - on the lines (Does the text say this? What words support your answer?) Inferential: hidden - between the lines (Does the text give you this idea? What words and phrases support your answer?) Applied: in my head - beyond the lines (Do you agree with this? Why?) Constructing meaning from reading: Reading- must consider GAPS (grammar, audience, purpose and structure) Use visuals, teach the structure of the text, talk to others, select the important concepts. Use CLOZE passages, visual/graphic organisers, jigsaw activities WHAT is being said? WHERE is it being said? WHEN is it being said? WHO is saying it? HOW is it being said? Focus on: meaning, language and use Grammar: Syntax- the combination of words in sentences Morphology- the form and structure of words and their change over time Semantics- changes in meaning & principles that govern the relationship between words Phonology- the sound systems Graphology- the writing system of a language (alphabet, layout etc.) Lexis- the total vocabulary items in a language Point of need- when grammar is taught Functions of language use: Functional grammar- choices we have when making meaning, social context. Dependent on context, which changes over time. Ideational- to reflect on our experiences, to represent the world and make sense of it. to convey our ideas and information Interpersonal- using language to act upon the world, to get things done Textual- relates to the language mode chosen and how the text is organised Field (what)- what is it about? Ideational metafunction Tenor (who)- the relationship between the speaker/reader. Interpersonal metafunction Mode (how)- medium and language mode. Textual metafunction Formal or traditional grammar: showing how the basic elements of language (parts of speech) work –particularly at the level of sentence Functional grammar: emphasis on social context in which language is being used; different texts are structured to suit different situations Grammar- the study of language (meta-language) and language in use (language). ‘Big picture’ views about language and its forms and features are important (not just about spelling and punctuation). It is important to think about the effect of certain words and the function of particular linguistic features. Explicit knowledge- Identify and account for the connections and distinctions between different examples of usage that will enhance reading and improve writing Modality- concerned with degrees of possibility, probability, certainty or obligation High modality- asserting a point of view; persuasive/ informative e.g. must, will, always Low modality- exploratory, opens up discussion, uncertainty, hesitation e.g. may, could Effects- to either invite or close down interactions Voice- who does the action? Tells us how the verb functions relative to the subject Active voice- subject does something to a person or thing (sally climbed the fence) Passive voice- the subject receives the action. Made up of the verb, ‘to be’ and the past participle (the fence was climbed by sally) Effects- the active voice is more direct and forceful whereas the passive voice is less direct and requires more words. The four resources model: Text Code Breaking- The ability to break the code of written texts by recognising and using the fundamental architecture of written language, including the alphabet, sounds in words, spelling, structural conventions and patterns. Text Meaning Making- The ability to understand and compose meaningful written, spoken, digital and multimodal texts. Ask, ‘what does this mean to me?’ Text Using- The ability to use written, spoken, digital and multimodal texts in functional ways within and outside the school setting. Ask ‘what do I do with this text?’ Text Analysing- The ability to critically analyse written, spoken, digital and multimodal texts and understand that texts represent particular points of view and influence people’s ideas. Ask, ‘what does this text do to me?’ Four types of teaching- Explicit Explicit- involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly structured environment. It is focused on producing specific learning outcomes.  Explaining the purpose of the task or unit and presenting the task clearly  Modeling, guiding and demonstrating the tasks to be performed  Making links to students prior knowledge  Provide scaffolds and examples  Provide appropriate feedback to students  Provide challenging tasks to refine skills, knowledge & understanding  Provide students with opportunities to practice new skills and understandings Four types of teaching- Systematic Systematic- presenting material in small steps, pausing to check for student understanding, and requiring active and successful participation from all students  Designing teaching sequences while considering all students  Monitoring their progress through a variety of techniques  Judgement about prior learning, syllabus requirements and teaching strategy Teaching should be done in an explicit way (make everything clear) and this needs to be done systematically (in a planned, purposeful and sequential way). Four types of teaching- Balanced Balanced- variety of pedagogical strategies (not one size fits all)  with active participation of all students in all modes  Equal emphasis on the development of semantic, grammatical, phonological- graphological and visual/ pictoral knowledge Four types of teaching- Integrated Integrated- equal weight on learning to (skills) and learning about (content)  Blending of language modes and integrated learning  Skills + content for assessment  Implement the four resources model  Provide significant, authentic (useful) and challenging learning Modelled teaching  Direct scoffolding and teacher-led and planned  Demonstrates new skills and concepts by showing/watching/listening/explaining  Activates prior knowledge while introducing new terminology  Concrete and visible forms- illustrations, diagrams, summaries, ICT Guided support  Planned and systematic- time to enrich and clarify  Students are hands on while practicing and applying (performance/ talking/ group work/ organising/ applying  Enough support to succeed Assessment to learn- finding
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