EDUC260- REVISION NOTES
Cueing systems for meaning:
Semantic knowledge of the world and the word
Syntactic knowledge of the structure of the language
Grapho-phonic knowledge of sound-letter relationships
Three level guide for reading comprehension (IMPORTANT):
Literal: here - on the lines (Does the text say this? What words support your answer?)
Inferential: hidden - between the lines (Does the text give you this idea? What words
and phrases support your answer?)
Applied: in my head - beyond the lines (Do you agree with this? Why?)
Constructing meaning from reading:
Reading- must consider GAPS (grammar, audience, purpose and structure)
Use visuals, teach the structure of the text, talk to others, select the important concepts.
Use CLOZE passages, visual/graphic organisers, jigsaw activities
WHAT is being said?
WHERE is it being said?
WHEN is it being said?
WHO is saying it?
HOW is it being said?
Focus on: meaning, language and use
Syntax- the combination of words in sentences
Morphology- the form and structure of words and their change over time
Semantics- changes in meaning & principles that govern the relationship between words
Phonology- the sound systems
Graphology- the writing system of a language (alphabet, layout etc.)
Lexis- the total vocabulary items in a language
Point of need- when grammar is taught
Functions of language use:
Functional grammar- choices we have when making meaning, social context. Dependent
on context, which changes over time.
Ideational- to reflect on our experiences, to represent the world and make sense of it. to
convey our ideas and information
Interpersonal- using language to act upon the world, to get things done
Textual- relates to the language mode chosen and how the text is organised
Field (what)- what is it about? Ideational metafunction
Tenor (who)- the relationship between the speaker/reader. Interpersonal metafunction
Mode (how)- medium and language mode. Textual metafunction
Formal or traditional grammar: showing how the basic elements of language (parts of
speech) work –particularly at the level of sentence
Functional grammar: emphasis on social context in which language is being used;
different texts are structured to suit different situations Grammar- the study of language (meta-language) and language in use (language).
‘Big picture’ views about language and its forms and features are important (not just
about spelling and punctuation). It is important to think about the effect of certain
words and the function of particular linguistic features.
Explicit knowledge- Identify and account for the connections and distinctions between
different examples of usage that will enhance reading and improve writing
Modality- concerned with degrees of possibility, probability, certainty or obligation
High modality- asserting a point of view; persuasive/ informative e.g. must, will, always
Low modality- exploratory, opens up discussion, uncertainty, hesitation e.g. may, could
Effects- to either invite or close down interactions
Voice- who does the action? Tells us how the verb functions relative to the subject
Active voice- subject does something to a person or thing (sally climbed the fence)
Passive voice- the subject receives the action. Made up of the verb, ‘to be’ and the past
participle (the fence was climbed by sally)
Effects- the active voice is more direct and forceful whereas the passive voice is less
direct and requires more words.
The four resources model:
Text Code Breaking- The ability to break the code of written texts by recognising and
using the fundamental architecture of written language, including the alphabet, sounds
in words, spelling, structural conventions and patterns.
Text Meaning Making- The ability to understand and compose meaningful written,
spoken, digital and multimodal texts. Ask, ‘what does this mean to me?’
Text Using- The ability to use written, spoken, digital and multimodal texts in functional
ways within and outside the school setting. Ask ‘what do I do with this text?’
Text Analysing- The ability to critically analyse written, spoken, digital and multimodal
texts and understand that texts represent particular points of view and influence
people’s ideas. Ask, ‘what does this text do to me?’
Four types of teaching- Explicit
Explicit- involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly
structured environment. It is focused on producing specific learning outcomes.
Explaining the purpose of the task or unit and presenting the task clearly
Modeling, guiding and demonstrating the tasks to be performed
Making links to students prior knowledge
Provide scaffolds and examples
Provide appropriate feedback to students
Provide challenging tasks to refine skills, knowledge & understanding
Provide students with opportunities to practice new skills and understandings
Four types of teaching- Systematic
Systematic- presenting material in small steps, pausing to check for student
understanding, and requiring active and successful participation from all students
Designing teaching sequences while considering all students
Monitoring their progress through a variety of techniques
Judgement about prior learning, syllabus requirements and teaching strategy Teaching should be done in an explicit way (make everything clear) and this needs to be
done systematically (in a planned, purposeful and sequential way).
Four types of teaching- Balanced
Balanced- variety of pedagogical strategies (not one size fits all)
with active participation of all students in all modes
Equal emphasis on the development of semantic, grammatical, phonological-
graphological and visual/ pictoral knowledge
Four types of teaching- Integrated
Integrated- equal weight on learning to (skills) and learning about (content)
Blending of language modes and integrated learning
Skills + content for assessment
Implement the four resources model
Provide significant, authentic (useful) and challenging learning
Direct scoffolding and teacher-led and planned
Demonstrates new skills and concepts by showing/watching/listening/explaining
Activates prior knowledge while introducing new terminology
Concrete and visible forms- illustrations, diagrams, summaries, ICT
Planned and systematic- time to enrich and clarify
Students are hands on while practicing and applying (performance/ talking/
group work/ organising/ applying
Enough support to succeed
Assessment to learn- finding