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BIO1022: Exam Revision

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Monash University

Cilia and Flagella  Microtubules are responsible for the beating of the flagella and cilia.  Sperm of animals, algae, and some plants have flagella.  Unicellular eukaryotes are moved through the water by cilia or flagella that act as a locomotor characteristic.  When cilia or flagella extend from cells that are held in place as part of a tissue layer, they can move fluid over the surface of the tissue.  Motile cilia occur in large numbers on the cell surface.  There are only one or a few flagellas per cell.  Nonmotile cilias act as a signal receiving antenna for the cell.  Membrane proteins on nonmotile cilias transmit molecular signals from the cell’s environment to its interior, triggering signalling pathways that lead to changes in the cell’s activities.  A flagellum has a snakelike motion driving a cell in the same direction as the axis of the flagellum.  Cilia have a back-and-forth motion.  Dyneins – large motor proteins that are made up of several polypeptides. They are responsible for the bending movements of the organelle. Microfilaments (Actin filaments)  They are also called actin filaments because they are built from molecules of actin, a globular protein.  A microfilament is a twisted double chain of actin subunits.  Microfilaments are present in all eukaryotic cells.  The structural role of microfilaments in the cytoskeleton is to bear tension.  Microfilaments in the plasma membran
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