The participation of communities in the relevant decision making for the communities
Enhances community wellbeing.
Foundations of CE need to be based on appeals of relevance, contexts, emotion and
problem solving recognition.
Achieved through strategies that develop community knowledge, skills, values and
Relate to specific public and private sector activities and proposals within
Intended to properly inform the community about a proposal so that public opinion is
based on accurate understanding.
Provide an opportunity for the community to respond to a proposed development.
Invite various levels of community input into aspects of the decision making process.
Three levels of CI:
Community information – successful CI is founded on effective, appropriate and
timely info provided to community members.
Community consultation – process used to solicit opinions and views by individuals
and interested community members relating to a specific organisational defined
Community participation - an active role by community members in the creation of
meaning and developing solutions to complex social problems/proposed solutions
that affect a specific community.
When to engage in CI:
When issue effects rights and entitlements.
When a significant number od people will have a strong opinion of the issue.
Agreement and acceptable of community is essential.
Issue will effect quality of life. Key Concepts
Many layers and variables that shape how an organisation develops and implements
its’ CSR initiatives (PR doesn’t usually shape it).
Has much to do with reputation management and opinion formation (as well as
media relations and publicity from time to time).
A lot to do with SM because it’s where they convey their efforts.
Based on the concept that good business is for a good society.
Not charity, it’s about how companies earn their profits (not how they spend them).
Takes employees and organisational structures to realise CSR.
About a company’s responsible and sustainable behaviour in all company matters
(social, financial, environmental).
A commitment to improve community wellbeing through discretionary business
practices and contribution of corporate resources.
The continuing commitment by a business to behaving ethically and contributing to
economic development while improving the quality of life od the workplace and their
family as well as the community and society at large.
Key themes found amongst them:
Organisations operate within in a world with multiple stakeholders.
No strict standards of how it should be conducted.
Management does not look favourably at being accused of unethical business
To operate within the community’s interest often requires a deep and trivial analysis
of many different variables, to define its true interest and with the view to identify a
CSR is the responsibility of an organisation for the impacts of its’ decisions and
activities on society and the environment, through transparent and ethical behaviour
Contributes to sustainable development. Key Concepts
Takes into account the expectations of stakeholders.
Is in compliance with applicable law and consistent with international norms of
Is integrated throughout the organisation and practiced in relationships.
Context of CSR
Framework of rules, relationships, systems and processes within and by which
authority is exercised and controlled in corporations.
Encompasses the mechanisms by which companies, and those in control, are how
Influences how the objectives of the company are set and achieved, how risk is
monitored and assessed and how performance is optimised.
Discipline – commitment by senior management to adhere to behaviour that is
universally recognised and accepted as correct and proper.
Transparency – an outsider is able to make meaningful analysis of a company’s
Independence – extent to which mechanisms have been put in place to
minimise/avoid potential conflicts of interest that may exist.
Accountability – individuals/groups in a company who make decisions and take
actions on specific issues need to be accountable for their decisions and actions.
Responsibility – while the board is accountable to the company, it must act
responsibility towards stakeholders.
Fairness – systems that exist within a company must be balanced, taking into
account all those who have an interest in the company and its future.
Describes the myriad of ways in which members of the community can interact with
and be involved in the decision making process.
Involves a greater level of involvement/engagement than public
Engagement levels: Key Concepts
Inform the public.
Listen to the public.
Engage in problem solving.
Why its important:
Overcome historical arrogance by developing better relationships with the wider
Better inform the community with the aim of reducing the need for crisis
Increase the social acceptance of a program/initiative.
Satisfy a moral obligation and simultaneously gain personal wellbeing by interacting
with the community.
Identify potential issues before they arise and readily negotiate suitable measures to
overcome such issues.
Engage in two way sharing of diverse info with the community and consequently
share decision making.
Considerations in recruiting participants for the CI process:
Affected people should be invited first.
Diversity of interested people.
People in the position to make decisions should be involved where possible.
Context of the process determines the participants.
Requirements for successful CI processes:
Openness,, fairness and inclusiveness in the selection of participants.
Clear mandate and purpose from the onset.
Professional design and implementation.
Informal but structural process. Key Concepts
Variety of techniques for eliciting inputs.
Clear influence on decision making.
Sufficient time and supporting technical resources.
Keeping decision makers informed throughout the process.
Reasonable and realistic expectations from all parties involved.
When companies focus on their corporate giving.
Seek to align their charitable giving with a cause that connects to its core business.
Also to gain reputation value.
Company that displays their logo at sports events and concerts so they can
associate their brand with having a “heart”, values and ethics.
About active community partnership projects between your company and/or
governments and/or NGOs in the countries/regions/communities where you operate. PR in the Community
PR practice in the community
Set of competencies that practitioners must posses in order to work successfully with
a variety of communities:
Strategic and technical competencies
Understanding the big picture:
Being aware of what’s going on beyond the task at hand.
Understanding more than what their role is in the community and their own
Knowing both organisation’s and community’s desires and concerns, keeping alert to
Keep in sight the overall objective.
Seeing an issue from many perspectives:
Communities made up of individuals who have needs and wants.
Impossible to make everyone completely satisfied but there is value in getting as
much knowledge and feedback as possible.
Can find new opportunities/issues that if left unaddressed on can blow up later on.
Uncovering the real issues at stake:
Everyone in the community has an opinion and being able to cut through the clutter
of want and identifying the needs is essential.
Understanding the importance of relationships and how to build them.
Need to hold the beliefs that building a relationship with the community has a
Need to know how to build meaningful relationships with community if it wants to
work effectively together.
Recommending and implementing communication solutions:
Ability to facilitate solutions is key reason why practitioner is involved with the plan in
the first place.
Keeping PR perspectives visible and influential in decision making. PR in the Community
How PR serves organisations
Draw on broad communication skills to help solve problems to: