Perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus doesn’t match its physical reality
Detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain.
The brains interpretation of raw sensory inputs
Sensation allows us to pick up on signals in our environments and perception then allows us to
assemble these signals into something meaningful!
First step in sensation is converting external energy into a language the nervous system
Specialized cell that is responsible for converting external substances into neural activity
for a specific sensory system.
Activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected
The study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics.
2 types, qualitative method (description stimulus + recognise object) (used for brain injury)
Quantitative method (absolute threshold)
Lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change of 50% of the
Limit of perception
Demonstrate how remarkably sensitive our sensory systems are
the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect smallest difference between 2 stimuli a person can detect
ability to distinguish a stronger from a weaker noise
there is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus
the stronger the stimulus, the bigger the change needed for a change in stimulus intensity
to be noticeable.
Signal detection theory
theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions
signal to noise ratio: harder to detect a signal as background noise increases.
The McGurk effect
an illusion, where you perceive things differently depending on what part of sense is being
A condition in which people experience cross modal sensations
Creating a sense when it is not there
Seeing letters and numbers as colours when they are not
The ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously
The way our mind multi tasks
Bottom up processing
Processing in which a whole is constructed from parts
Starts with the raw stimuli we perceive and ends with our organizing them into meaningful
Top down processing
Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectations
What we have seen before (Existing perception)
Set form when expectations influence perceptions Example of top down processing
The process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
Seeing a door as a door
Process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring/ minimizing others.
Select one channel and turn off the others
In Reticular activating system (RAS) and forebrain in frontal cortex
Filtering stuff you are not interested in
Failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere
Process by which separated signals are combined to create a unified perception
Attention is the glue that forms perception
colour of light
colours of light: red, green, blue = mixed = white light
circular hole through which light enters the eye
part of the eye containing transporting cells that focus light on the retina
covers iris and pupil
part of the eye that changes curvature to keep images in focus
Accommodation changing the shape of the lens to focus on objects near/ far
distance of object