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Midterm

ATS1310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Soil, Extreme Weather, Debris Flow

2 Pages
99 Views
Fall 2018

Department
Arts - ATS
Course Code
ATS1310
Professor
Megan Farrelly
Study Guide
Midterm

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LANDSLIDES
KEY DEFINITIONS
Landslides form part of the wider group termed “mass movements”
Mass movements: downslope motion of large masses of soil, weathered debris, or rock
May be slow or very rapid
Materials involved can be wet (mud) or dry (boulders)
Can fall, tumble, slide or flow
Slump: movement of rock debris down a slope
Mudflow: highly fluid, wet/saturated
Debris flows: mixture of rock and soil
Lahars: volcanic mudflows (water saturates volcanic ash)
TYPES
Can be numerous & widespread and seasonal (peaking in northern hemisphere summer monsoon rains)
- Dry gravity driven: driven rockfall/rockslide (tilted strata block has slipped and fallen)
- Earthquake induced
- Heavy rain induced
- Slump: earthflow (event followed heavy rain)
- Thaw flows
- A slide (translational)
- Highly fluid wet mudflow
- Debris flows (rock & soil)
- Suburban development extending into landslide - prone landscape
FACTORS/CAUSES
- Steep hillslopes (generally, but not in all cases)
- Undercutting (often by waves, rivers, but also roads or mining)
- Heavy rainfall in the weeks or days before (saturates material - increases weight and thus downslope sliding)
- Clearing or removal of forest vegetation (loss of root strength no reinforcement to soil)
- Shaking of the landscape (earthquake vibration)
- Overloading of the hillslope (e.g. increasing weight/burden by buildings)
- Seasonal thawing of frozen ground (permafrost) (saturation…)
- Slow weathering and weakening of rock (a natural process reduces strength)
- Extreme weather conditions (e.g. tropical cyclone)
- Snow melt (release of meltwater - saturates)
- Bushfire in steep terrain (bare landscape, unprotected soils)
- Stockpiling of large masses of unconsolidated waste rock, soil or other debris (e.g. mine tailings stockpiles)
- Dams and reservoirs (with new shorelines and wave action)
- Runoff from urban areas (roofs, roads…)
- Combination of the above (especially rain followed by earthquake…)
EFFECTS
- People/livestock are unable to escape burial & death (crushing or asphyxiation)
- Landslide debris blocking course of streams & rivers catchment may burst when accumulation of debris fails/unblocks (flooding)
- Disruption to road and railway lines (infrastructure damage/economic losses)
- Buried towns
- Fractured roads/tilted houses/fallen buildings
- Triggering tsunamis (landslide occurs on flanks of volcano)

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Description
LANDSLIDES Landslides form part of the wider group termed mass movements KEY DEFINITIONS Mass movements: downslope motion of large masses of soil, weathered debris, or rock May be slow or very rapid Materials involved can be wet (mud) or dry (boulders) Can fall, tumble, slide or flow Slump: movement of rock debris down a slope Mudflow: highly fluid, wetsaturated Debris flows: mixture of rock and soil Lahars: volcanic mudflows (water saturates volcanic ash) Can be numerous widespread and seasonal (peaking in northern hemisphere summer monsoon rains) Dry gravity driven: driven rockfallrockslide (tilted strata block has slipped and fallen) TYPES Earthquake induced Heavy rain induced Slump: earthflow (event followed heavy rain) Thaw flows A slide (translational) Highly fluid wet mudflow Debris flows (rock soil) Suburban development extending into landslide prone landscape Steep hillslopes (generally, but not in all cases) Undercutting (often by waves, rivers, but also roads or mining) FACTORSCAUSES Heavy rainfall in the weeks or days before (saturates material increases weight and thus downslope sliding) Clearing or removal of forest vegetation (loss of root strength no reinforcement to soil) Shaking of the landscape (earthquake vibration) Overloading of the hillslope (e.g. increasing weightburden by buildings) Seasonal thawing of frozen ground (permafrost) (saturation) Slow weathering and weakening of rock (a natural process reduces strength) Extreme weather conditions (e.g. tropical cyclone) Snow melt (release of meltwater saturates) Bushfire in steep terrain (bare landscape, unprotected soils) Stockpiling of large masses of unconsolidated waste rock, soil or other debris (e.g. mine tailings stockpiles) Dams and reservoirs (with new shorelines and wave action) Runoff from urban areas (roofs, roads) Combination of the above (especially rain followed by earthquake) Peoplelivestock are unable to escape burial death (crushing or asphyxiation) EFFECTS Landslide debris blocking course of streams rivers catchment may burst when accumulation of debris failsunblocks (flooding) Disruption to road and railway lines (infrastructure damageeconomic losses) Buried towns Fractured roadstilted housesfallen buildings Triggering tsunamis (landslide occurs on flanks of volcano)
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