Week 5 Quiz Notes.docx

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Dr Karla Ziri- Castro

[TYPE THE COMPANY NAME] ENB200 - Introduction to Systems REVISION SHEET 8/14/2013 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS  Today's engineering, business and scientific environments are characterised by increasing change  There is a pursuit for continual innovation o Creativity is a necessity. Especially in "hard" disciplines  Scale of societal problems are rising  Increasing need for inter-disciplinary research and a systems approach  COMPLEXITY OF PROBLEMS IS RISING  Moore's Law - a long term trend in the history of computing hardware (number of transistors double every two years. All problems require a system's approach for easiest and most informed solution SYSTEMS DEFINITION OF A SYSTEM A system is a set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole, in particular. SYSTEM'S THINKING  Focuses on the "big picture"  makes it possible to handle increasing complexity and uncertainty SYSTEMS ENGINEERING  An interdisciplinary mix of project management, business, rational decomposition, requirements traceability, integration, testing, verification and validation, operations, etc...  A field of engineering that focuses on how to design and manage complex engineering projects over their life cycles  standardises the flow-down and traceability of specifications for products/systems from customer requirements through production, operation, and disposal. needs, Systems Product, Specifications, Requirements Engineering sustem, output. Processes etc...  Systems Engineering integrates all the disciplines and speciality groups into a team effort forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation  Considers both Business and Technical needs of all customers with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user's needs. DS 2013 ENGINEERING SYSTEMS (ES) Engineering systems are a Class of systems characterised by a high-degree of technical complexity, social intricacy, and elaborate processes, aimed at fulfilling important functions in society. All or many disciplines are often required for input into developing ES solutions. All can benefit from adopting a systems approach ENGINEERING SYSTEMS  A class of systems characterised by a high degree of technical complexity, social intricacy and elaborate processes, aimed at fulfilling important functions in society  All ES operate within a context. SYSTEM'S APPROACH  The practice to understand the part only in the context of the whole, interacting with, and adopting to, its environment .  stemmed from biology  involves socio-technical systems  seen as a way of addressing complex problems and issues Ackoff (1981) suggested 3 ways in which problems could be addressed. Problems could be: 1. Resolved - Finding an answer that is "good enough" - one that suffices 2. Dissolved - Changing the solution in some way such that the problem disappears 3. Solved - Finding a correct answer to the problem - as in solving a unique solution equation WHY SYSTEMS FAIL?  Requirements are fuzzy and/or change  Problems with indirect effects; Cause and Effect relationships are not linear in a complex system  Lacks focus on operation and management ENGINEERING SYSTEMS MOVEMENT  Not everything is amendable to the reductionist approach  Some systems only operate as a whole  Parts mutually independent COMPLEXITY  Measure of difficult in describing and modelling a system (and thus ability to predict)  Corning (1928) suggested complexity generally has 3 attributes: 1. Parts 2. Relationships 3. Effects DS 2013 CONTEXT  the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed. INTERACTION  Reciprocal action or influence ELEMENTS  A part or aspect of something, esp. one that is essential or characteristic to the system. TYPES AND ANAYSIS OF SYSTEMS CLOSED SYSTEMS  Doesn't have an interaction with its environment  Gets messy or stays the same with time  Not many in the Real world - as everything is effected by its surroundings OPEN SYSTEMS  Interacts with environment  Able to adapt  Dynamic  True for Engineering Systems  Most real world examples INTERDEPENDENCE  The study of complex systems helps us recognise and understand indirect effects  Pushing on a complex system "here" has effects "over there"  Notion that "Everything is related"  Best way to relies what the interdependence of a system's part is to take the part out and see what the effect it has on the whole system.  Recognising that these different behaviours exist in an important part of characterising all of the systems we are interested in REQUIREMENTS  A requirement is a singular documented need of what a particular product, service, or system should be or perform. It is a statement that identifies a necessary quality of a system in order for it to have value and utility to a user  BEWARE OF ANY ASSUMPTIONS DS 2013 MANAGING REQUIREMENTS  Decomposition techniques create "chucks" that can be handled by design teams and eventually by individual engineers.  System's engineering fails for LARGE-SCALE COMPLEX, SOCIOTECNICAL SYSTEMS. EMERGENCE  some system poses properties and do not behave from examination of their parts in isolation E.g. Human Brain  Try to explain the unpredictable  Whole systems exhibit emergent properties, where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts EMERGENCE RELATED TERMS Synergy  The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Indivisibility  Not possible to observe and understand each part in isolation Fractals  same thing inside the thing but smaller Self - similarity  There are many systems contain replicas of themselves on smaller scales Self-Organizing  Patterns can form from control (top-down) or from interaction (bottom- Patterns up) Evolution  Changes with time  complex systems evolve sometimes Chaos
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