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Queensland University of Technology

NAME OF PERSON KNOWN FOR? WEEK(S) MENTIONED YEAR First person to study social psychology – Triplett social facilitation 1 1898 experiment Most influential study Milgram on effect of authority 2 1974 on obedience Conducted influential Asch conformity 2 1951 experiments – line experiment Challenged the conformity bias and proposed three ways of dealing with conflict Moscovici – conformity, 2 1976 normalisation and innovation. Also conducted famous colour experiment Argues that minorities Mugny need to be able to 2 1982 negotiate Argues that people are distressed to find their Nemeth views do not align with 2 1986, 1995 the majority Conducted the Stanford prisoner experiment and found Zimbardo that group roles have 3 1971 significant effect on the person Claims that people compete for group roles and identifies Festinger 3 1954 specific and diffuse attributes when being assigned a group role Developed the drive theory – positive or Zajonc negative social 3 1965 facilitation depending on difficulty of task Developed evaluation- apprehension theory where attentive Cottrell audience inhibits 3 1972 performance because of fear of evaluation Developed distraction- conflict theory in which it is not fear of Baron evaluation but 3 1986 distraction which inhibits performance. Studied social loafing and found two explanations – Ringelmann coordination loss in 3 1913 groups and motivational loss with increased group size Conducted experiments into social loafing and ruled out Ingham et al. coordination leaving 3 1974 motivational loss as explanation – coined ‘Ringelmann effect’ Latane Coined the term ‘social 3 1974 loafing’ Also provided their Williams et al. own definition of social 3 1993 loafing Conducted ‘risky shift’ research in which groups tend to decide Stoner a much more extreme 3 1961 decision than intended. Known today as group polarisation. Developed the social decisions schemes model where you can Davis predict with high 3 1973 certainty the groups final decision Developed the social transition scheme which focuses on the Kerr pattern of individual’s 3 1981 opinions in group decision making processes Found evidence to suggest that Stroebe and Dahl production blocking is 3 1994 the main obstacle in brainstorming Clarke and Stephenson Conclude that groups 3 1989, 1995 remember more than individuals Coined the term group Janis think 3 1972 Famous for autokinetic experiment, found that people in groups tend Sherif to converge on a 1, 2, 3 1936 response different to their initial response Calls the bandwagon effect ‘primus inter Codol pares’ (first among 3 1975 equals). Conducted a boys summer camp study on leadership and Sherif found that leadership 3 1966 was situationally dependent Identified the need for two leaders – task Bales 3 1950 specialist and socioemotional Developed contingency theory Fiedler and the least preferred 3 1964 coworker (LPC) scale Psychologist and Walter Dill Scott founder of I/O 4 NA psychology Frederick Winslow Engineer and founder 4 NA Taylor of I/O psychology Psychologist and Hugo Munsterberg founder of I/O 4 NA psychology Developed taxonomy French and Raven of power – referent, 2, 4 1959 expert, reward etc. Consistency theory of Korman self-esteem related to 5 1970, 1976 motivation and performance Intrinsic motivation theory – argues people Deci are more motivated 5 1975 when the task brings pleasure etc. Maslow Developed a hierarchy of needs with five 5 1968 levels ranging from most needed to least Adapted the ERG (Existence, Relatedness Alderfer and Growth) model 5 1972 from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Proposed the three needs theory – need McClelland for power, 5 1961 achievement and affiliation Developed two factor theories – good and bad. Talks about Herzberg motivational and 5 1966 hygiene factors in the workplace. Job characteristics model – job characteristics produce Hackman and Oldham different psychological 5 NA reactions which either improve motivation or not improve it Proposed equity theory – the need to Adams balance job input and 5 1965 outcome and unbalance causes tension Skinner Reinforcement theory 5 NA in motivation Expectancy theory – people are motivated by the expected rewards, the extent to Vroom which their actions 5 1964 reach these rewards and the overall
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