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JSB170 Week 4 Exam Revision.docx

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Week 4 Exam Revision – Individual Explanations for Crime Cesare Lombroso: • Habitual/Professional Criminals: crime as a career, prison is the “university of crime” • Juridicial criminal: commit impulsive or careless acts that are criminal • Criminals of passion: committed criminal acts for reasons of “intense love, honour, noble ambition, or patriotism” (Lombroso 1876) • Crimaloids: committed crimes because they are easily influenced, similar to born criminals but determined by environment • Born Criminals: biologically predisposed to crime • Lombroso also recognised the morally insane and hysteric criminal types (Bartol 1999, 50) “THE CRIMINAL TYPE IN WOMEN AND ITS ATAVISTIC ORIGIN” Cesare Lombroso and William Ferrero (1895) “Atavism* helps to explain the rarity of the criminal type in woman. The very precocity of prostitutes – the precocity which increases their apparent beauty – is primarily attributable to atavism. Due also to it is the virility underlying the female criminal type; for what we look for most in the female is femininity, and when we find the opposite in her we conclude as a rule that there must be some anomaly. And in order to understand the significance and the atavistic origin of this anomaly, we have only to remember that virility was one of the special features of the savage women.” “We also know that women have many traits in common with children; that their moral sense is deficient; that they are revengeful, jealous, inclined to vengeance of a refined cruelty. In ordinary cases these defects are neutralised by piety, maternity, want of passion, sexual coldness, by weakness and an undeveloped intelligence. But when morbid activity of the physical centers intensifies the bad qualities of women, and induces them to seek relief in evil deeds; when piety and maternal sentiments are wanting, and in their place are strong passions and intensely erotic tendencies, much muscular strength, and a superior intelligence for the conception and execution of evil, it is clear that the innocuous semi-criminal present in the normal woman must be transformed into a born criminal more terrible than any man…. As a double exception, the criminal woman is consequently a monster. Her normal sister is kept in the paths of virtue by many causes, such as maternity, piety, weakness, and when counter influences fail, and a woman commits a crime, we may conclude that her wickedness must have been enormous before it could triumph over so many obstacles.” *at·a·vism –noun 1. Biology. a. the reappearance in an individual of characteristics of some remote ancestor that have been absent in intervening generations. b. an individual embodying such a reversion. 2. reversion to an earlier type; throwback Eysenck – Personality and Crime • Disputed that Sociology was key to explaining crime and argued that Psychology had much more to offer • Believed that neuropsychology which underpinned personality was key to understanding and treating criminal behaviour • Understood crime to be the result of an interaction between environment and individual psychology • Believed that different personalities were more susceptible to certain crimes than others. • Eyesenk “…was not suggesting that individuals are born criminal but rather that some people are born with nervous system characteristics that affect their ability to conform to social expe
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