MGB200 Exam Notes

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Management and Human Resources
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MGB200 EXAM: Short answers: Transformational leadership and Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership: Define: Transformational leadership: a leadership perspective that explains how leaders change teams or organisations by creating, communicating and modelling a vision for the organisation or work unit, and inspiring employees to strive for that vision. Leading (transformational) vs. managing (transactional) vs. charisma (personal trait) Unpack: - Different from transactional - Gifted speakers - Convey optimism - Vision - Engages employees - Changing organisations strategies and culture - Energise - Direct employees Transformational - some leadership models say charismatic leadership is essential for transformational leadership. Emerging view - charisma differs from transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is a set of behaviours to bring about change. Transformational leadership is important. Limitations - it is a universal theory o Build commitment to the vision o Develop a strategic vision o Model the vision o Communicate the vision Example: Richard Branson Situational leadership theory: Define: effective leaders vary their style (telling, selling, participating, delegating) with the ‘readiness’ of the followers. - Commercially popular - Poorly supported leadership model Readiness = employees willingness (motivation and commitment to task) Look at model! Stress: Define: An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person’s wellbeing. - Physio - Psycho condition Stressors: Any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on a person Types of stressors: - Harassment (psychological and sexual) - Work overload (email, phones, wireless, buy more products, honour by working much) - Low task control (lack of how and when their perform tasks) Stages: - Stage 1: Alarm reaction (threat) - Stage 2: Resistance (more energy to remove the stress factor) - Stage 3: Exhaustion (Exhausted, illness) Preventative stress management: Remove the stressor: - Flexible and limited work time - Job sharing (splits a career position between 2 people, work - family) - Telecommuting (working from home) - Personal leave (paid vacation) - Childcare support Withdraw from the stressor (permanently or temporarily): Vacations, scream room, karaoke. Change stress perception: Help employees to manage stress better by changing their perception of stress. Control the consequences of stress: Exercise, diet and meditation. Example: Jet Blue flight attendant. Cultural artefacts, strategies to strengthen culture: Organisational culture: The values and assumptions shared within an organisation. Artefacts: The observable symbols and signs of an organisations culture. Artefacts: - Stories and legends (the ways things should be or not be done, standards) - Rituals and ceremonies (rituals: customers greeted, daily life, BMW) (ceremonies: more formal, planned, reward and punishment) - Language (talk to each other, describe customers, express anger) - Physical structures and symbols (buildings, office layout) Strategies to strengthen culture: - Actions of founders and leaders (leaders play central role, transformational) - Align artefacts with desired culture (office layout, change systems etc.) - Introduce culturally consistence rewards (performance rewards) - Attracting selecting and socialising employees (attract, select and retain employees with same values) Strengthening Organisational Culture 1. Actions of founders and leaders • Founders establish org. culture; provide role models • Transformational leaders—can alter and strengthen organisational culture by communicating and enacting their vision 2. Introducing culturally consistent rewards • Rewards reinforce behaviours that are consistent with cultural values 3. Maintaining a stable work force • Org. culture embedded in minds of employees • High turnover, rapid expansion weaken org. culture • Need stable work force to communicate and reinforce the dominant culture 4. Managing the cultural network • Tribal storytellers—communicate org. stories • Organisational grapevine is important for culture • Opportunities to share stories and re-enact rituals Senior managers need to tap in to cultural network • Organisational media may help transmit culture 5. Selecting and socialising employees • Hire people whose beliefs and values are consistent with organisational culture—better person–organisation fit -- Improves loyalty and workplace adjustment • Communicate culture to job candidates through recruiting, orientation, etc. • Applicants must pay attention to cultural artefacts • Socialisation -- Process by which individuals learn the values, expected behaviours, and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles in the organisation -- Helps employees internalise cultural values Positive Psychology Define: Positive Psychology identifies and studies the factors that create wellbeing rather than at cures for psychological illnesses. Positive mental health • Positive emotions – happiness and life satisfaction • Engagement – being completely absorbed in activities • Relationships – being authentically connected to others • Meaning – purposeful existence • Achievement – a sense of accomplishment and success Exercises: 1. Kindness exercise (do 1 good thing every day) 2. Signature strengths (exercise your signature strengths, work etc.) 3. Gratitude visit (letter of gratitude, talk to person) 4. 3 blessings (write 3 things that went well) 5. Active constructive responding (give feedback in the moment, engaged) Other important aspects: - Optimism - Resilience - Fixed/growth mindset Lewin’s force field analysis and resistance to change: See model!
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