PYB102 – Week Twelve Revision
Motivation and Emotion Definitions:
Motivation is the force that drives behaviour.
Emotion can be described as the intensity and quality of that force.
Motivation – Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud believed in two basic needs (internal states) which intensified until satisfied. He
originally proposed that these were sex and self-preservation, then later changed these to
sex and aggression.
Contemporary theorists have added the need for relatedness and self-esteem.
They have also focused on wishes as a desired state associated with pleasant feelings and
on fears as an undesired state associated with unpleasant feelings.
Motivation – Behaviourist Perspective
Drive Reduction Theory
Primary Drives such as hunger, thirst, sex etc. If these needs are unsatisfied, we develop
internal tension (a drive) which motivates our behaviour to satisfy the need. Once the need
is satisfied the drive is reduced and we return to a state of balance.
Secondary Drives are based on conditioning and modelling. Essentially, if an otherwise
neutral stimulus becomes associated with a drive reduction (which reduces the internal
tension) then the behaviour will be repeated.
Challenges to Drive Reduction Theory: people persist with certain behaviours even after the
internal need has been met. What motivates these behaviours?
Motivation – Cognitive Perspective
Goal is valuable but also believed to be achievable.
Goal Setting Theory
Conscious goals which are established by social learning regulate much of human behaviour.
Identifies the discrepancy between what you have and what you want.
The goal is specific and not generalised.
The goal is sufficiently difficult so that you may maintain motivation over a reasonable
period of time. That is, if the goal is perceived as too easy it will not likely be achieved and if
it is perceived as too difficult it will not likely be achieved either.
Obtain regular feedback to evaluate progress.
Believe that the goal is achievable.
Be committed to achieving the goal.
Self-Determination Theory and Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation depends on three innate needs being satisfied:
o Competence – the need to feel capable and successful.
o Autonomy – the need to feel a certain degree of independence.
o Relatedness to others – the need to feel socially accepted and not isolated.
Automatic (unconscious) activation of goals. Priming studies are an example of this.
Motivation – Humanistic Perspective
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates the order in which our needs are most important to us
(most important to least):
Physiological needs e.g. hunger, thirst etc.
Safety e.g. housing, financial security.
Love and intimacy e.g. romantic relationships and sex.
Esteem e.g. respect from peers and others.
Self-actualisation e.g. creative arts and expression, service to others etc.
ERG Theory – Contemporary Version of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Existence: meeting basic drives such as hunger, thirst, and having a safe house and security.
Relatedness: social relationships with others, respect from peers, romantic relationship and
Growth: personal identity, creative expression, helping others and ‘giving back’.
Motivation – Evolutionary Perspective
Fixed patterns which are not learned.
There were originally six of these but the theory of instincts has since been rejected on the
basis of cross-cultural and individual differences and flexibility.
Survival and Reproduction
Contemporary theorists argue that there are multiple innate motivational systems all related
to survival and reproduction.
Specific Motives – Eating and Sex
Specific motives are eating and sex. Eating is a need because we require food for energy and
nutrition. It is driven by hunger. Sex is a need also because we require a sense of intimacy and
procreation. The need for sex is driven by sexual arousal.
o Absorptive phase is when we are eating. The glucose levels rise as we need glucose
right away, as is the same with several other necessary nutrients. The rest of the
food is stored for when we need it. Carbohydrates are converted into glycogen
(short-term storage inside the body, particularly liver). Fats or lipids are placed into