PYB102 Week 13 Exam Revision Notes.docx

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Queensland University of Technology

PYB102 – Week Thirteen Revision Variations in Consciousness – Sleep Electroencephalography (EEG) is used to measure brainwaves while we sleep. It uses electrodes placed upon the scalp to detect and measure patterns of electrical activity emanating from the brain. An EEG electrode amplifies the electrical potentials occurring in many thousands of brain cells. NREM Sleep (Non-Rapid Eye Movement) During NREM sleep is when hypnic myoclonia can often occur. This is the familiar ‘jerking awake’ sensation which occurs when we feel as though we are falling when asleep. There is no confirmed reason for this, however one theory suggests it is the body’s response to the change and interprets this as dangerous, as though we were dying. REM Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement)  The brainwaves during REM sleep are very similar to the waves that occur when we are awake. Because of this, REM sleep has been nicknamed ‘paradoxical sleep’.  It is also interesting to note that there is virtually no muscle activity during REM sleep, which explains why hypnic myoclonia cannot occur here. This lack of muscle activity is called muscle atonia.  In REM sleep, the eyes twitch rapidly back and forth, as opposed to big rolling motions like in NREM sleep.  We spend around two hours a night in REM sleep, which is when we have our dreams the most. Physiological Changes Between REM and NREM Sleep Physiological Process During NREM Sleep During REM Sleep Increases in motor and Brain Activity Decreases from wakefulness sensory areas, while other areas are similar to NREM Increases and varies from Heart Rate Slows from wakefulness NREM Increases up to 30% and Blood Pressure Decreases from wakefulness varies from NREM Increases from 50 – 200% Blood Flow to Brain Does not change from from NREM, depending on wakefulness in most regi
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