Get 2 days of unlimited access
Study Guides (350,000)
AUS (8,000)
UQ (800)
BIOM (10)
Study Guide

BIOM2020- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 46 pages long!)


Department
Biomedical Science
Course Code
BIOM2020
Professor
Carl Stephan
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 46 pages of the document.
UQ
BIOM2020
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

BIOM2020: Urinary System
Functional Divisions of Organs:
1. Kidneys: filter waste from bloodstream and convert filtrate to urine ***kidneys not part of urinary tract;
tract begins when it gets out of pelvis***
2. Ureters: using peristalsis, they transfer urine from kidney to bladder
3. Urinary Bladder: stores urine
4. Urethra: eliminates urine out of bladder
Kidney:
- RETROPERITONEAL (behind parietal peritoneum)
- Left renal artery longer than the right due to descending aortic trunk in the way.
- Right kidney (starts at lumbar V) lower than the left (starts at thoracic V to ~L3) due to the position of
the liver.
- Both located posteriorly in ab. area.
- Held in position by adipose tissue (no ligamentous attachments)
- suprarenal /adrenal glands sit superior to kidney.
- Structure and Function:
- Regulates blood volume and pressure
- Regulates erythrocyte production via erythropoietin
- Regulates blood’s inorganic ion balance (Na, K+, PO42-)
- Balances acid-base by changing the rates of H+ and ammonium secretion.
- Protective coverings:
- Renal fascia: dense irregular tissue -> anchors kidney to surroundings
- Adipose capsule: fat + adipose -> cushioning and insulation
- Renal Capsule: dense connective tissue -> maintains shape and protects from pathogens.
- Sequence for urine elimination: collecting duct -> papillary duct -> minor calyx -> major calyx -> renal
pelvis -> ureter -> urinary bladder
- Minor and major calices located in renal sinus; as well as renal pelvis, renal fat and blood vessels.
- Hilum: contains renal vein, artery and ureter (ant. to post. - cow goes VAU)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Blood supply: heart -> renal artery -> segmental artery -> interlobar artery -> arcuate artery -> interlobular
artery (smaller ones) -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus (heart of nephron = filtration of blood) -> efferent
arteriole-> peritubular capillaries (associated with convoluted tubules) -> vasa recta (associated with nephron
loop) -> interlobular vein -> arcuate vein -> interlobar vein -> renal vein -> heart
- Nephrons:
- Renal corpuscule: composed of glomerulus (capillary network) which is surrounded by glomerular
capsule; produces a filtrate of blood where waste is excreted via the proximal convoluted tubule.
- Filtration pathway: afferent arteriole -> bowman’s capsule (filtration) -> efferent arteriole
(filtrated blood) -> Loop of Henle (reabsorption of ions and water; located in Medulla) -> proximal
convoluted tubule (reabsorbs ions, nutrients, plasma, proteins, vitamins and water; filtrate is now
called tubular fluid; located in cortex) -> distal convoluted tubule (secretes ions into the tubular
fluid and reabsorbs water) -> collecting duct (for urine).
Urinary Tract
Ureters:
- Paired; 25-30cm fibromuscular tubes; Extend from renal pelvis out of the renal hilum
- RETROPERITONEAL
- Transport urine via smooth muscle peristalsis
- Composed of 3 layers (inner to outer):
- Mucosa: transitional epithelium stretchy to the passage of urine which are surrounded by
bundles of primarily smooth muscle fibres to help propel urine.
- Muscularis: 2 smooth muscle layers: inner longitudinal and outer circular; peristaltic waves to
propel the urine.
- Adventina: areolar connective tissue which anchors the ureter to the posterior abdominal.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version