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MGTS1601 Study Guide - Final Guide: Frederick Herzberg, Theory X And Theory Y, Job SatisfactionPremium

3 pages80 viewsFall 2018

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Marissa Edwards
Study Guide

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Motivation: the processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction
and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The three key elements are:
Intensity 强度: describes how hard a person tries. This is the
element that most of us focus on when we talk about motivation
Direction 方向: high intensity effort is unlikely to lead to
favourable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is
channelled in a direction that benefits the organisation
Persistence 坚持: measures how long a person can maintain
effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to
achieve their goal
Hierarchy of needs. Maslow hypothosised that within every human being there
exists a hierarchy of five needs:
Basic needs:
1. Physiological: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs
2. Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional harm
Psychological needs:
3. Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship
4. Esteem 尊重: internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy and
achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition and
5. Self-actualisation 自我实现: drive to become what we are capable of
becoming; includes growth, achieving our potential and self-fulfillment
Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically
negative, labelled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labelled Theory Y:
Under Theory X, managers believe that employees inherently dislike work
and must therefore be directed at work or even coerced into doing it
Under Theory Y, managers assume that employees can view work as
natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to
accept, and even seek, responsibility
Psychologist Frederick (erzberg proposed the two-factor theory also called
motivation–hygiene theory
(erzberg investigated the question, What do people want from their jobs?
(erzberg concluded that the replies people gave when they felt good
about their jobs differed significantly from the replies given when they felt
)ntrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility and
achievement, seem related to job satisfaction
On the other hand, dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic
factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies and working
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