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Final

MGTS1601 Final: Exam Revision Note 6
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Department
Management
Course Code
MGTS1601
Professor
Marissa Edwards

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Motivation: the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction
and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The three key elements are:
Intensity 强度: describes how hard a person tries. This is the
element that most of us focus on when we talk about motivation
Direction 方向: high intensity effort is unlikely to lead to
favourable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is
channelled in a direction that benefits the organisation
Persistence 坚持: measures how long a person can maintain
effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to
achieve their goal
Hierarchy of needs. Maslow hypothosised that within every human being there
exists a hierarchy of five needs:
Basic needs:
1. Physiological: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs
2. Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional harm
Psychological needs:
3. Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship
4. Esteem 尊重: internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy and
achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition and
attention
Self-fulfillment
5. Self-actualisation 自我实现: drive to become what we are capable of
becoming; includes growth, achieving our potential and self-fulfillment
Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically
negative, labelled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labelled Theory Y:
Under Theory X, managers believe that employees inherently dislike work
and must therefore be directed at work or even coerced into doing it
Under Theory Y, managers assume that employees can view work as
natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to
accept, and even seek, responsibility
Psychologist Frederick Herzberg proposed the two-factor theory (also called
motivation–hygiene theory)
Herzberg investigated the question, “What do people want from their jobs?”
Herzberg concluded that the replies people gave when they felt good
about their jobs differed significantly from the replies given when they felt
bad
Intrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility and
achievement, seem related to job satisfaction
On the other hand, dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic
factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies and working
conditions

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Description
Motivation: the processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The three key elements are: Intensity : describes how hard a person tries. This is the element that most of us focus on when we talk about motivation Direction : high intensity effort is unlikely to lead to favourable jobperformance outcomes unless the effort is channelled in a direction that benefits the organisation Persistence : measures how long a person can maintain effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal Hierarchy of needs. Maslow hypothosised that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs: Basic needs: 1. Physiological: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs 2. Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional harm Psychological needs: 3. Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship 4. Esteem : internal factors such as selfrespect, autonomy and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition and attention Selffulfillment 5. Selfactualisation : drive to become what we are capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving our potential and selffulfillment Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labelled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labelled Theory Y: Under Theory X, managers believe that employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed at work or even coerced into doing it Under Theory Y, managers assume that employees can view work as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility Psychologist Frederick Herzberg proposed the twofactor theory (also called motivationhygiene theory) Herzberg investigated the question, What do people want from their jobs? Herzberg concluded that the replies people gave when they felt good about their jobs differed significantly from the replies given when they felt bad Intrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility and achievement, seem related to job satisfaction On the other hand, dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies and working conditions
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