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PHIL1110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ad Hominem, Confirmation Bias, False Dilemma

1 pages48 viewsFall 2018

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Dr. Toby Meadows
Study Guide

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Propositions and a conclusion
Can be asserted or denied
Deductive where the premises force the conclusion to be true
Inductive where the likelihood of the conclusion is known (never certain)
Kinds of Reasoning
System 1 Quick with shortcuts in thinking (is prone to heuristic biases)
System 2 Deliberate, conscious thinking (is slow)
Heuristic Biases
Representativeness Like goes with like or stereotyping
Availability Using the first information that comes to mind (being asked your
favourite ovie ad ca’t thik of ay)
Anchoring Adjustment occurs when an individual makes new decisions based on
the old, anchor number
Confirmation Bias Not looking for disparaging information to a preconceived notion, only
searching for information to confirm your ideas
Persuasion Techniques
Asking Questions
Contrast Principle
Message Repetition
Social consensus
Question begging assumes the statement under examination to be true. In other
words, using a premise to support itself.
Equivocation when a key term or phrase in an argument is used in an ambiguous
way, with one meaning in one portion of the argument and then another meaning in
another portion of the argument.
Strawman giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually
refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.
Ad Hominem attacking the person rather than the argument
False dilemma arguing over only two options when in actual fact there are far
Gamblers fallacy the mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently
than normal during a given period, it will happen less frequently in the future
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