Study Guides (283,566)
AUS (7,769)
UQ (808)
PSYC (44)
PSYC2050 (1)
All (1)
Final

PSYC2050 Study Guide - Final Guide: Eleanor Rosch, Voice-Onset Time, Leading Question

23 Pages
43 Views
Spring 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC2050
Professor
All
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 23 pages of the document.
PSYC2050 LEARNING AND COGNITION
COGNITION: study of mental processes such as perceiving, remembering and reasoning
WILHELM WUNDT (1879): introspection
HERMANN EBBINGHAUS (1885): empirical study of memory
WILLIAM JAMES (1890): principles of psychology
INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL: computer metaphor, software is to hardware as mind is to
brain, computational theory of mind
APPROACHES TO STUDYING THE MIND: experiments (measuring reaction times and performance),
neuroscientific investigations (brain imaging/recording and lesion studies), modelling (describing
contents and processes in math), comparative (performance comparison across age groups and
species)
LEARNING: an adaptive process of specific changes to behaviour emotion and/or through due to
experience
ADAPTIVE: not necessarily beneficial, but generally aiding some function
EXPERIENCE: any effects of the environment mediated by a sensory system
TWO MAJOR WAYS OF LEARNING: habituation and associative learning
HABITUATION: “getting used to it response” allows us to learnt that a stimulus is not significant and
therefore you don’t have to be distracted by petty events
ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: engage our whole body and shape our responses to the world (even the
expression and content of desires) e.g. Pavlovian, we measure behaviour to infer learning,
behaviour is caused by the organism, environmental demands and internal states
CHANGES IN BEHAVIOUR NOT DUE TO ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: habituation, innate response
tendencies (reflexes, instincts), maturation (unaffected by practice), fatigue (disappears after break),
changes due to physical or motivational state
“CONDITIONING” AND “ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING” ARE INTERCHANGEABLE
DRUG TOLEREANCE AND WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS ARE THE RESULTS OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
BEHAVIOUR IS MEDIATED BY COGNITION (PERCEPTION, MEMORY, ATTENTION, ETC.)
LEARNING IS ONE OF THE BASIC PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTES TO COGNITION
LOGICAL POSITIVISM: the view that an idea has no meaning, scientifically, until it is measureable
CS: neutral stimulus to which organism must learn to respond, e.g. bell
US: stimulus that elicits an unlearned response, e.g. meat elicits salivation
UR: unlearned response, e.g. salivation
CR: the response to a CS learned through pairing, e.g. salivation to bell
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONDITIONING: acquisition, intensity of US, order and timing (interstimulus
interval), extinction, spontaneous recovery
ACQUISITION: learning phase of classical conditioning, number of acquisition trials increases strength
of CR (salivation to bell)
INTENSITY OF US: the more intense, the more rapid the learning
ORDER AND TIMING: CS (bell) presented just before or with US (meat) is better for conditioning
EXTINCTION: when an organism learns that the CS (bell) no longer predicts the US (meat), CS is
presented alone repeatedly
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: reintroducing CS after a break and CR reappears
DELAY CONDITIONING: when CS is begun a certain amount of time before US is presented, can be
short or long
TRACE CONDITIONING: when CS presentation finishes before US is presented
SIMULTANEOUS CONDITIONING: when CS and US are presented at the same time
BACKWARD CONDITIONING: weakest form of timing, when US is presented before CS
INTERSTIMULUS INTERVAL: not a common ISI for every experiment, dependent on the situation (e.g.
eyelid reflex or taste aversion, etc.)
INTERTRIAL INTERVAL: the time between pairings, the longer the better
EXCITATORY CONDITIONING: CS predicts presence of US, leads to increase in US behaviour
INHIBITORY CONDITIONING: CS predicts absence of US, no CR, leads to reduction of US behaviour
FOR A CS TO BE CONSIDERED A TRULY INHIBITORY CS, IT MUST PASS BOTH THE RETARDATION AND
SUMMATION TEST
RETARDATION TEST: train and inhibitory and neutral stimulus to become excitatory, test is passed if
inhibitor shows slower learning
SUMMATION TEST: present CS alone, with inhibitor and with neutral stimulus, passed if CS and
inhibitor pair shows slowest learning (inhibitor weakens excitatory CS)
RENEWAL: when extinction is context specific so response reappears in different context when CS is
presented
REINSTATEMENT: reminder effects, present meat (US) after extinction, then present bell (CS) leads
to salivation (CR)
NATIVISM: the view that some ideas are innate and do not depend on an individuals’ past
experiences, opposing empiricism
OVERLEARNING: continuing to practice after performance is perfect, produces improved
performance in a delayed test
BROWN’S PRINCIPLE OF RECENCY: the more recently two items have been paired, the stronger their
association will be, forgetting is rapid immediately after a study period, but the rate of additional
forgetting slows as time passes
INTERMITTENT CS-US PAIRINGS: when the US is not presented after the CS 100% of the time,
learning is still apparent but is much weaker to begin with, conditioning will occur if there are more
than 30% CS-US pairings
CONTIGUITY: the more closely together in space or time two items occur, the more likely the
thought of one item will lead to the thought of the other
CONTINGENCY: pairing things is not enough for learning, conditioning only occurs when the CS
provides some info ahead of time about the likelihood of the US occurring (blocking and
superconditioning support this view)
BLOCKING: don’t learn about a novel CS that is paired with a CS which is already very predictive of
the US, blocked cues less conditioning than neutral cues which show less conditioning than
superconditioned cues
SUPERCONDITIONING: learning is faster if a novel stimulus is trained together with an inhibitory
stimulus
A CS MUST SIGNAL NON-REDUNDANT INFO ABOUT THE OCCURRENCE OF THE US TO BE USEFUL
AND THUS WORTH LEARNING ABOUT
COMPOUND CONDITIONING: if elements differ in saliency/intensity, we get overshadowing (stronger
CR to one element), if elements are equally salient, after many trials the compound is responded to
OCCASION SETTER: A stimulus that may not itself elicit a response but modulates behaviour to
another stimulus, e.g. when a tone elicits a fear response when preceded by a light but not
otherwise, the light is the occasion setter
CONTEXT CONDITIONING AFFECTS TOLERANCE, E.G. HEROIN OVERDOSE EXPERIMENT
SENSORY PRECONDITIONING: two neutral stimuli are presented together and then only one of them
is paired with a US
PRE-EXPOSURE EFFECT/LATENT INHIBITION: interference with conditioning that is produced by
repeated exposures to the conditional stimulus before conditioning begins, e.g. pre-exposure to
same light used in conditioning without the shock leads to habituation effects
SECOND ORDER CONDITIONING: the pairing of a neutral stimulus with a previously conditioned
stimulus elicits a CR so the neutral stimulus acquires the CR
PREPAREDNESS: animal has an innate propensity to form such associations quickly and easily, the
easier something is to learn, the less surprising it is and the easier it is to acquire, e.g. that taste
rather than noise+light signals sickness and noise+light rather than taste signals shock, less resistant
to extinction and more likely to be irrational
SURPRISE: what learning is driven by, blocking occurs because the US is not longer surprising after
phase 1

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
PSYC2050 LEARNING AND COGNITION COGNITION: study of mental processes such as perceiving, remembering and reasoning WILHELM WUNDT (1879): introspection HERMANN EBBINGHAUS (1885): empirical study of memory WILLIAM JAMES (1890): principles of psychology INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL: computer metaphor, software is to hardware as mind is to brain, computational theory of mind APPROACHES TO STUDYING THE MIND: experiments (measuring reaction times and performance), neuroscientific investigations (brain imaging/recording and lesion studies), modelling (describing contents and processes in math), comparative (performance comparison across age groups and species) LEARNING: an adaptive process of specific changes to behaviour emotion and/or through due to experience ADAPTIVE: not necessarily beneficial, but generally aiding some function EXPERIENCE: any effects of the environment mediated by a sensory system TWO MAJOR WAYS OF LEARNING: habituation and associative learning HABITUATION: getting used to it response allows us to learnt that a stimulus is not significant and therefore you dont have to be distracted by petty events ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: engage our whole body and shape our responses to the world (even the expression and content of desires) e.g. Pavlovian, we measure behaviour to infer learning, behaviour is caused by the organism, environmental demands and internal states CHANGES IN BEHAVIOUR NOT DUE TO ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: habituation, innate response tendencies (reflexes, instincts), maturation (unaffected by practice), fatigue (disappears after break), changes due to physical or motivational state CONDITIONING AND ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING ARE INTERCHANGEABLE DRUG TOLEREANCE AND WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS ARE THE RESULTS OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING BEHAVIOUR IS MEDIATED BY COGNITION (PERCEPTION, MEMORY, ATTENTION, ETC.) LEARNING IS ONE OF THE BASIC PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTES TO COGNITION LOGICAL POSITIVISM: the view that an idea has no meaning, scientifically, until it is measureable CS: neutral stimulus to which organism must learn to respond, e.g. bell US: stimulus that elicits an unlearned response, e.g. meat elicits salivation UR: unlearned response, e.g. salivation CR: the response to a CS learned through pairing, e.g. salivation to bell BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONDITIONING: acquisition, intensity of US, order and timing (interstimulus interval), extinction, spontaneous recovery ACQUISITION: learning phase of classical conditioning, number of acquisition trials increases strength of CR (salivation to bell) INTENSITY OF US: the more intense, the more rapid the learning ORDER AND TIMING: CS (bell) presented just before or with US (meat) is better for conditioning EXTINCTION: when an organism learns that the CS (bell) no longer predicts the US (meat), CS is presented alone repeatedly SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: reintroducing CS after a break and CR reappears DELAY CONDITIONING: when CS is begun a certain amount of time before US is presented, can be short or long TRACE CONDITIONING: when CS presentation finishes before US is presented SIMULTANEOUS CONDITIONING: when CS and US are presented at the same time BACKWARD CONDITIONING: weakest form of timing, when US is presented before CS INTERSTIMULUS INTERVAL: not a common ISI for every experiment, dependent on the situation (e.g. eyelid reflex or taste aversion, etc.) INTERTRIAL INTERVAL: the time between pairings, the longer the better EXCITATORY CONDITIONING: CS predicts presence of US, leads to increase in US behaviour INHIBITORY CONDITIONING: CS predicts absence of US, no CR, leads to reduction of US behaviour FOR A CS TO BE CONSIDERED A TRULY INHIBITORY CS, IT MUST PASS BOTH THE RETARDATION AND SUMMATION TEST RETARDATION TEST: train and inhibitory and neutral stimulus to become excitatory, test is passed if inhibitor shows slower learning SUMMATION TEST: present CS alone, with inhibitor and with neutral stimulus, passed if CS and inhibitor pair shows slowest learning (inhibitor weakens excitatory CS) RENEWAL: when extinction is context specific so response reappears in different context when CS is presented REINSTATEMENT: reminder effects, present meat (US) after extinction, then present bell (CS) leads to salivation (CR) NATIVISM: the view that some ideas are innate and do not depend on an individuals past experiences, opposing empiricism OVERLEARNING: continuing to practice after performance is perfect, produces improved performance in a delayed test BROWNS PRINCIPLE OF RECENCY: the more recently two items have been paired, the stronger their association will be, forgetting is rapid immediately after a study period, but the rate of additional forgetting slows as time passes INTERMITTENT CS-US PAIRINGS: when the US is not presented after the CS 100% of the time, learning is still apparent but is much weaker to begin with, conditioning will occur if there are more than 30% CS-US pairings CONTIGUITY: the more closely together in space or time two items occur, the more likely the thought of one item will lead to the thought of the other CONTINGENCY: pairing things is not enough for learning, conditioning only occurs when the CS provides some info ahead of time about the likelihood of the US occurring (blocking and superconditioning support this view) BLOCKING: dont learn about a novel CS that is paired with a CS which is already very predictive of the US, blocked cues less conditioning than neutral cues which show less conditioning than superconditioned cues SUPERCONDITIONING: learning is faster if a novel stimulus is trained together with an inhibitory stimulus A CS MUST SIGNAL NON-REDUNDANT INFO ABOUT THE OCCURRENCE OF THE US TO BE USEFUL AND THUS WORTH LEARNING ABOUT COMPOUND CONDITIONING: if elements differ in saliency/intensity, we get overshadowing (stronger CR to one element), if elements are equally salient, after many trials the compound is responded to OCCASION SETTER: A stimulus that may not itself elicit a response but modulates behaviour to another stimulus, e.g. when a tone elicits a fear response when preceded by a light but not otherwise, the light is the occasion setter CONTEXT CONDITIONING AFFECTS TOLERANCE, E.G. HEROIN OVERDOSE EXPERIMENT SENSORY PRECONDITIONING: two neutral stimuli are presented together and then only one of them is paired with a US PRE-EXPOSURE EFFECT/LATENT INHIBITION: interference with conditioning that is produced by repeated exposures to the conditional stimulus before conditioning begins, e.g. pre-exposure to same light used in conditioning without the shock leads to habituation effects SECOND ORDER CONDITIONING: the pairing of a neutral stimulus with a previously conditioned stimulus elicits a CR so the neutral stimulus acquires the CR PREPAREDNESS: animal has an innate propensity to form such associations quickly and easily, the easier something is to learn, the less surprising it is and the easier it is to acquire, e.g. that taste rather than noise+light signals sickness and noise+light rather than taste signals shock, less resistant to extinction and more likely to be irrational SURPRISE: what learning is driven by, blocking occurs because the US is not longer surprising after phase 1 REACQUISITION PHASE: subject receiving another acquisition phase after an extinction phase, rate of learning is much faster DISINHIBITION: presence of a distracting, novel stimulus disrupts the inhibition that occurs during extinction AVERSIVE COUNTERCONDITIONING: develop an aversive CR to a stimulus associated with the undesirable behaviour, e.g. associating nausea with alcohol for alcoholics OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY: emotionally salient stimuli evoke an initial immediate reaction followed by an opposite after-reaction (the opposing process), repeated stimulus exposure makes initial reaction weaker and after-reaction stronger which changes the motivation behind behaviour controlled by positive and negative stimuli, e.g. in drug addiction FEAR: specific and short-lasting emotional reaction to something we perceive as potentially dangerous ANXIETY: sustained and long lasting fear response to one or several sets of stimuli, learned through fear conditioning FEAR-RELEVANT STIMULI ARE MORE RESISTANT TO EXTINCTION COMPARED TO FEAR-IRRELEVANT EXTINCTION OF FEAR-CONDITIONING TO RACIAL OUTGROUPS WAS HARDER THAN FOR INGROUPS FORMAL MODEL: model in which all elements and relations are explicitly defined, typically in one or more equations or formulae RESCORLA-WAGNER MODEL: explains how the organism learns the prediction of the US, the level of conditioning is a result of an internal comparison between the expected strength of the US and the actual strength of the US, expectation is based on previous trials, strength of the US is fixed R-W EXPLAINS: overshadowing, blocking, extinction R-W DOESNT EXPLAIN: configuring, pre-exposure, backward blocking R-W MODEL OUTLINES SIX GENERAL RULES: -strength > expectation: excitatory conditioning -strength < expectation: inhibitory conditioning -strength = expectation: no conditioning -the greater the difference between the strength of the US and the expected strength of the US: the greater the level of conditioning -the greater the salience of the CS, the faster the conditioning -if two CSs are presented together the overall expectation will be the sum of the expectation of each: important for the overexpectation effect ACTUAL STRENGTH - EXPECTED STRENGTH = SURPRISE OVEREXPECTATION EFFECT: presentation of two CSs with one US leads to overexpectation of the strength of the US (e.g. more signals of food means more food), so each cue becomes subject to inhibitory conditioning, weakening the CSs relative to the control group where only one CS was paired at a time
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit