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BESC1120 Study Guide - Final Guide: Intentionality, Scientific Method, Pubic Hair

2 pages60 viewsFall 2018

Behavioural Science
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Study Guide

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EXAM NOTES - Developmental Psychology
1. - Adolescence begins around age 12
- lasts until aprox age 20, is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood.
- The extension of education during late 19th century and abolition of child labour helped to create
this period of transition
2. - Significant increases in height and weight around age 12-14
- boys a little later than girls. Large individual differences in timing of teen growth spurt, later
growth spurt in boys is responsible for enduring sex differences in adult height and weight.
- Body shape becomes differentiated in boys and girls by differential fat and muscle development
resulting in conformity to adult masculine and feminine body shapes.
3. - Puberty consist of the changes in sex organs and related parts of body that signal sexual maturity
and ability to reproduce.
- Stimulated by increased production of sex hormones (androgens) particularly testosterone and
- In boys, rapid growth of penis and scrotum and production of fertile sperm.
- In girls, marked by menarche (first period).
- Both sexes exhibit secondary sex characteristics, eg breast development in girls and beard growth
in boys, pubic hair for box sexes.
4. - Wide individual differences in timing of puberty, as well as cultural differences and historical
- Occurs within a fairly narrow developmental window, suggesting a strong biogentic factor, but
environmental influences particularly proportion of body fat may vary timing within this window.
- For boys, early maturation tends to be negative with greater chance of behavioural and
psychological problems in short term.
- Late maturation for boys ma have short term negatives in peer relationships but in long term
usually better outcomes.
- For girls, early maturation exposes them to psychological and health risks including inappropriate
sexual relationships, STI’s, teen pregnancy – short term, Long term may be more positive
- late maturing girls tend to be protected from early sexualisation and are generally better adjusted
than early maturers
5. - Are a high-risk group for injury and death due to risky behaviours and beliefs of invulnerability.
– major health threats include exposure to STIs, substance abuse (incl. Recreational drug use,
drinking and smoking), obesity and eating disorders.
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