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BESC1120 Study Guide - Final Guide: Working Memory, Procedural Memory, Circulatory System

3 pages61 viewsFall 2018

Behavioural Science
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Study Guide

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EXAM NOTES - Developmental Psychology
Cognitive Development
Preservation of crystallised abilities broke down after age 75
Measures of IQ, highly stable across the lifespan (indicates childhood ability is single best predictor
of cognitive ability in late adulthood)
Absence of chronic diseases, high socioeconomic status, involvement in intellectually stimulating
activities and physical activity – all reduce risk of cognitive loss
Wisdom and cognitive abilities:
Wisdom expert knowledge and good judgment about important but uncertain matters of life
positive change associated with late life
People expect to grow in wisdom and dignity in late adulthood
Increases with age
May develop cumulatively through experience
Intelligence is necessary, not sufficient component of wisdom
Not all older adults are wise
Curvilinear relationship between wisdom and age
Middle adulthood scored higher
Wisdom positively related to mental health
Cognitive mechanics – content free
Cognitive pragmatics – knowledge rich
^ 2 major intellectual categories, extending distinction between fluid and crystalized intelligence
Fluid mechanics of the mind biological most significant so declines with age, but crystalized
pragmatics of mind, culture is most significant so progress is possibility in older age
Techniques for maintaining or improving memory – older people benefit from
Cognitive plasticity and training ability of other neurons in cerebral cortex to take over functions
of neurons that have been damaged or lost
The ageing brain:
As with rest of body systems, age-related changes occur in CNS (central nervous system) and brain
Brain weight and brain mass gradually decrease during adulthood
Decrease accelerates after age 60
Loss is moderated by health status
Vascular health – white matter changes
Genetic factors, lifestyle choices – all contribute
APOE – gene responsible for producing a lipoprotein that carries fats around body
There are 4 versions of the gene ^
One of these genes has been connected to increased risk of dementia, more rapid decline and
greater age related change in cognition in healthy older adults
Brain changes:
Most brain changes not apparent until after 60
Steady decrease in fluid intelligence (more closely tied to sensory input)
Increase in crystallised intelligence (knowledge of specific info and use of judgement)
Neuronal loss and growth
Neuronal shrinkage
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