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BESC1120 Study Guide - Final Guide: Married People, Life Review, Disengagement Theory

6 pages63 viewsFall 2018

Behavioural Science
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EXAM NOTES - Developmental Psychology
Chapter 17: Psychosocial development in late adulthood:
Personality Development in Late Adulthood:
Old age brings many challenges to adaptation (including death of loved ones, declining health,
economic hardship)
Older adults call on the skills/styles they have honed over lifetime to adapt to new situations
Keeping mind and body active is important
Changes over time –
intellect (some decline)
agreeableness (some increase)
satisfaction (stable)
extroversion (decline)
change over time more related to age than gender
Integrity VS Despair – Erikson
developmental task of late adulthood
in face of loss of loved ones, declining health, loss of meaningful work – can lead to despair
can the individual find integrity or acceptance ones one and only life cycle and people who have
been significant to it as something that had to be
finding enduring meaning from ones life
wisdom – late life cognitive development
resolution of this conflict produces wisdom
agreeableness – person is coming to terms with life and accepting what it has been
old age increase in agreeableness – supports notion of ego integrity
solving life regrets in midlife leads to this integrity also
wholeness and continuity (identity – generativity – ago integrity)
success is predicted by resolution of earlier stages
Optimal Ageing:
= the maintenance of psychological adjustment and wellbeing across the full lifespan
Productive ageing
Successful ageing
Physical and mental functioning
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Absence of disease and disability
Active engagement with others
Disengagement theory reduction in social involvement in late adulthood is a natural and mitual
process between society and older adults
Activity theory maintenance of social physical and intellectual activity more successful to those
who are less active
Theory omissions: (critics of both theories)
Theories place burden of adjustment on individuals
Disregard factors such as reduced financial circumstances, range of activity and interest levels,
social support
Theories of ageing:
Positive life adjustment related to –
Controllable factors such as healthy living, good education
Uncontrollable factors such as – ancestry, upbringing, depression
Marriage and singlehood:
In 21st century greater heterogeneity in marital status among older adults than in previous
By 2040 proportion of married older adults likely to decrease
Older married people, appear to be happier and healthier
To live longer, than widowed/divorced people of same age
Most older marriages have existed since early adulthood
Marital satisfaction increases generally, among long term married couples
Marriage impacts on health, depression, recovery from illness, and longevity, ill health in turn,
impacts on marital relationship
Marital satisfaction – due to being mutually supportive, good communication, perceived equality of
Marital relationship provides support functions, especially for men… as older couples face
retirement and ill health, etc
Men depend emotionally on their spouses more than vise versa
Women – spouse is more companion
Confidante – for husbands (for women usually more a friend or daughter)
Marriage provides emotional intimacy, sexual intimacy, interdependence and belonging
Intimate partnerships in later adulthoodromantic relationships take different forms – many older
adults have experience number of these
impacts physical and mental health
also impacts economic and social wellbeing
impact depends on age and gender, expectedness of death, caregiving experiences
Women over 65 much more likely to be widowed than men
Widowed men more likely to remarry than women
Rate of remarriage after widowed is decreasing for both in aus
Death of spouse can causes disruption to self identity, and relationships with others
Grief / bereavement
Older adults more successful than younger adults at dealing with death
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