Explain and list the types the types of individual behaviour?
Counterproductive work behaviours
Joining/staying with the organisation
Maintaining work attendance
What is the MARS model of Individual Behaviour?
Ability >Situational Factors> Individual Behaviour and Results
What is employee motivation?
Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour.
What is employee ability?
Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities
Competencies personal characteristics that lead to superior performance
What are role perceptions?
The extent to which people understand the job duties assigned to or expected of them.
Understanding what tasks to perform
Understanding relative importance of tasks
Understanding preferred behaviours
What are situational factors?
Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short term control that constrain or facilitate
behaviour. Time, people budget, Work facilities
What other attributes feed into the MARS model of individual behaviour?
Stress Define personality
Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions and behaviours that characterise a person
along with the psychological process behind true characteristics.
What is the CANOE Personality model?
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to experience, Extraversion
What are values at work?
Relatively stable, evaluative beliefs that guide a person’s preference for outcomes or causes of
actions in a variety of situations
What is Schwartz’s Values?
Openness to changemotivation to pursue innovation
Conservation motivation to preserve the status quo
Selfenhancement motivated by selfinterest
Selftranscendencemotivation to promote welfare of others
What is value congruence?
Where 2 or more entities have similar value systems
Problems with incongruence incompatible decisions, lower satisfaction, higher stress
Benefits of incongruence constructive conflict, corporate cults
What is Uncertainty Avoidance?
High Uncertainty Avoidance
Feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty
Value structured situations
Low uncertainty avoidance tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty
What are the three ethical principles?
Individual rights in society
What are some influences on Ethical Conduct
Moral intensity degree of that issue demands ethical principles
Ethical sensitivity recognise the presence of an issue
Situational influences How to support ethical behaviour?
Ethical code of conduct
Ethical leadership and culture
What is perception?
Perception involves selecting information to attend to which depends on:
Characteristics of the object or person being perceived
Characteristics of the perceiver
What is perceptual grouping?
We tend to organise information into patterns or categories to make it easy to process and store
What is social identity theory?
People strive to maintain high selfesteem through process of social comparison
What do socialidentity based perceptual processes lead to?
Stereotyping, Conflict and functionalism within organisations
What is attribution process?
The process we go through to explain causes of behavior we see in others
Explain attribution theory?
Is the behaviour we observe caused by the individual or the environment
How attribution processes work?
Consensus, consistency, distinctiveness
How to ensure positive SFP (SelfFulfilling Prophecy) for new employees?
Tolerate errors during learning
Match leadership style to the situation
Build employee selfefficacy
What are some common perceptual errors?
Primary & recency efforts
Halo effects Falseconsensus effect
How can attribution errors distort perceptions?
Fundamental attribution error tendency to attribute others failures to internal causes
What are primary and recency efforts?
Sometimes 1st impressions count, other times its the last impression
What is the false consensus effect?
A blinding to the different opinions others may hold
What is the model of attitudes and behaviours?
Beliefs Beliefs, feelings, behavioural intentions are attitudes
What are beliefs?
The knowledge or understanding that a person has of an attitude object what you believe to be
true about it
What are feelings?
Positive or negative reactions to what you believe is happening
What are behavioural intentions?
What you feel motivated to do as a consequence of what you believe and feel
How do emotional states affect behaviour?
Indirectly by influencing evaluative feelings about something
Directly by causing us to behave in a way that reflects our emotional state What is emotional labour?
Effort, planning and control needed to express organisational desired emotions during
What is emotional dissonance and what are some ways to reduce it?
It is the conflict between true and desired emotions
Surface acting faking emotions
Deep acting trying to genuinely experience
What is emotional intelligence?
The ability to perceive and express emotions, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and
reason with emotion and regulate one's own emotion and regulate one’s own emotion and the
emotion of others.
What is the model of emotional intelligence?
Relationship management managing other people’s emotions
Social awareness perceiving and understanding the wearing of other’s emotions
Selfmanagement managing our own emotions
Selfawareness perceiving and understanding the meaning of your own emotions
What happens when people do not have consistency in their attitude and behaviour?
Creates inconsistency which creates tension and motivates attempts to restore consistency.
This creates cognitive dissonance
What are the responses to dissatisfaction?
Exit leave situation
Relate job satisfaction to TP, customers and business ethics?
TP Happy workers are only somewhat more productive, effect on performance is greater in
Customers job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and profitability. Positive mood is
Ethicsethical, moral obligation, reputation What are the three types of organisational commitment?
Continuance I must stay as it is too costly for me to leave
Normative commitment I feel obliged to stay
How do you build affective commitment?
How to manage workrelated stress?
Change stress perceptions
Control stress consequences
What is motivation?
The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary
What is employee engagement?
Emotional and cognitive motivation, self efficacy to perform the job, a clear understanding of
What is Abraham Maslow’s needs hierarchy?
Needs Hierarchy Theory
Explain and list McClelland’s Learned Needs?
Need for achievement learned predisposition for success
Need for affiliation desire to seek approval from others
Need for power need to control one’s environment What is the 4 drive theory?
Innate, hardwired and independent
What is EffortPerformance Expectancy?
What are my chances of reaching my performance if I work hard
What is PerformanceOutcome Expectancy?
What are my chances of getting various outcomes if I achieve my performance goal?
How to increase EP expectancy?
Advertising workload issues
How to increase PO Expectancy
Use valid performance measures
What is the ABC model of Behaviour Modification?
Antecedents Events preceding that signal what the consequence of various behaviour
Behaviour the behaviour the person enacts us a response to the antecedents
Consequences Events that follow the enacted behaviour and affect the employee
What are the characteristics of Effective Feedback?
Specific, Relevant, Timely, Credible, Sufficiently Frequent
What is social cognitive theory?
Learning through observation of others. Behaviour modelling, form expectancies for outcomes of
own actions, selfregulation
What is selfefficacy?
A person’s belief that he or she has the ability, motivation and resources to complete a task
successfully What is goalsetting theory?
The process of motivating employees by establishing task objectives
What is Equity Theory?
It attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of fair/unfair distributions of resources within
What is organisational justice?
Distributive justice perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and
Procedural justice perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of justice
What are reward systems used for?
Attract and retain staff
Motivate change in behaviour
What are jobstatus based rewards and advantages/disadvantages?
They are job evaluation and status perks.
Advantages job evaluation tries to maintain fairness, motivates co,petition for promotions
Disadvantages employees exaggerate duties, status mentality
Evaluate organisational rewards?
Creates ownership culture
Adjusts pay with firm’s prosperity
Weak correlation between effort and reward
Reward amounts are usually affected by external forces
What is job design?
The process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other
What is traditional job design?
Emphasis efficiency and productivity improvement What is selfleadership?
The process of influencing oneself to establish the selfdirection and selfmotivation needed to
perform a task
What are the elements of selfleadership?
Personal goal setting
Constructive thought patterns
Designing natural rewards
What is decision making?
A conscious process of making choices among alternatives with the intention of moving towards
some desired state of affairs
Decisions may be?
Programmed flowing SOP to selection
Unprogrammed uncertain situations, search for alternative, choose solution
What are decisions makers constrained by?
All possible alternatives and consequences cannot be generated
Defn of situation is incomplete and inadequate
The decision may be based on criteria other than outcome maximisation
What is rational choice decision process?
1. Identify problem or opportunity
2. Choose the best decision process
3. Discover or develop possible choices
4. Select the choice with the highest value
5. Implement the selected choice
6. Evaluate the structured choice
What is a heuristic?
A heuristic is an explicit rule for stopping a search process before you complete a truly
exhaustive search of all possible alternatives.
Why do we have trouble choosing solutions?
Problems with goals Problems with information processing
Problems with maximisation
What is escalation of commitment?
THe tendency to repeat an apparently bad decision or allocate more resources to a failing
course of action
What is the cause of escalating commitment?
Selfjustification, prospect theory (losses are more important to us than gains of the same
amount), perceptual blinders, closing costs
How to reduce escalation of commitment?
Set targets and milestones
Reduce egoinvolvement of decision makers
Different people make initial and continuance decisions
What is Vroom and Yetton’s leadership and decision making method?
AI Autocratic, no input from subordinates.
AII Autocratic, but gathers information from subordinates.
CI Consultative, discusses individually with subordinates.
CII Consultative, discusses with subordinates as groups.
GII Decision made by group and accepted by leader. (eg. as in selfdirected work teams)
What is the Garbage Can Model?
What is a creative person’s characteristics?
What is a team?
A group of people who have a clearly define common objective who must interact to achieve the
What are some examples of formal teams in workplaces?
Work, parallel, project and executive teams What are some examples of selfdirected work teams?
Perform a relatively complete work process, autonomous: teams manage their own inputs,
processes and outputs. They receive teamlevel feedback and rewards
Do work team works?
Improved coordination and control over complex, interdependent work processes
Enhanced motivation and commitment
Better skill utilization
More effective problemsolving
What is the team effectiveness model?
Are the teams well constructed?Team Design
Does the team achieve the organisation’