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IMED2003 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Smoking Age, Selection Bias, Effect SizePremium

2 pages57 viewsSpring 2018

Integrated Medical Sciences
Course Code
Kellie Bennett
Study Guide

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IMED2003: Revision 11 Notes
What is randomisation
System for assigning study subjects to treatment groups that are independent
of the individual participants’ characteristics.
Each participant should have an equal chance of being assigned to any
→ Simple; stratified, block
Why do we randomise?
Used to eliminate selection bias
Removes systematic differences between the treatment and control
Since it produces comparable groups, it may eliminate known and unknown
Groups should have a similar spread of other characteristics
Eg. (sex, smoking age, weight etc.)
Intention to Treat Analysis:
Once a patient is randomised they should be analysed in the treatment
group to which they were randomised to
EVEN if they actually received the alternative treatment or do not comply
with the treatment
Breaks the randomisation introduces bias
Participants who adhere may be different from those who dont in ways
that are related to the outcome
Effect size will reflect what likely to be seen in real-world practice
Usually results in an underestimation of the treatment effect
Stopping Rules in Clinical Trials:
Essential for most clinical trials
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