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BIOL 1113- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 54 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1113
Professor
Dave Shutler
Study Guide
Final

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Acadia
BIOL 1113
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIOL1113
8 September 2017
Foundations
Tree of Life (Web resource)
Ernst Heckel, Darwin also scribbled trees on notes organisms originating from bacteria
What is science?
The study of living and non-living things
Science is everything
American Heritage Dictionary definition
Carl Sagan definition
A way of discovering the nature of the Universe around you (Rawle et al. 2014)
Science vs. Faith
Science beliefs open to challenge, facts given
Faith given set of beliefs and not open to challenge, facts given irrelevant
Scientific Method
1. Natural History a collection of observations, a starting point of doing more interesting
phases of science. Events in the news
2. Looking for pattern in the news (hypothetical) finds that tragedies are clumped in a
short period of time
3. Question Hypothesis (asking why, such as tragedies comings in 3’s?)
4. Making prediction the next time a bad event happens,
Deviation from Null Expectation (Known Expectation) if it is upheld, there is
nothing random
5. Tests
Observational (monitoring news, evaluate if it fits hypothesis)
Experimentation (making bad things happen, such as testing nuclear weapon to
distinguish cause and effect correlation does not imply causation)
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6. Analyses, evaluation find out if data matched hypothesis
If yes, generality? (looking at successes, bills, etc..)
If no, new hypothesis for what the data collected is showing
NOTHING IS PROVEN IN SCIENCE a new observation could come along and challenge
100s of years in science (data supports, not proves)
YOU CANNOT DISPROVE A HYPOTHESIS failed to support hypothesis
Null Expectation X is unrelated to Y
Yardstick that you are going to compare to tested hypotheses
Example: body size influences food intake
Context is important to which hypothesis is supported
Eating less by choice, age, what you’re eating
Data
I collected a datum
I collected some data
These data were
These results support the hypothesis
Experimental Design
No scientist is purely objective
A proper way to test your hypothesis that doesn’t allow bias to enter
Elements to designing an experiment control group and experimental group
Choose individuals at random (asking friends who they’re voting for not a random
group)
Independent observation not influencing other observations
Controls
Sufficient samples about 30 observations before feeling comfortable about observation
Progress to “truth”?
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