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BIOL 3753 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Snow, Arctic, Amplitude Modulation


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 3753
Professor
All
Study Guide
Final

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BIOL 3753

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Where is the Arctic? 9/8/2018 4:32:00 AM
Arctic North of the Arctic circle, 66.5 degrees N; high arctic and low arctic
High Arctic is anything centered around the pole
Low Arctic is mostly coastal, Northern Quebec
Subarctic Immediately south of the Arctic circle
North Temperate Zone Tropic of Cancer north to Arctic Circle 23.5-66.5
Boreal Of or pertaining to the North
Circumpolar Located or found in one of the polar regions; around a
terrestrial pole
Taiga The swampy coniferous forest of high northern latitudes but south
of the tundra; the world’s largest terrestrial biome
Tundra A vast, flat, treeless Arctic region in which the subsoil is
permanently frozen
Permafrost A thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout
the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions
Sporadic permafrost
10-50% coverage of permafrost
Isolated permafrost
<10% of permafrost
Discontinuous permafrost
Permafrost that is broken up into separate patches the sun
melts the permafrost in some areas and in the shadows of
mountains or vegetation, it stays frozen
Typically south of the Arctic circle
Continuous permafrost
A continuous sheet of frozen material that extends under all
surfaces excepts large bodies of water
The treeline stops where permafrost begins trees stop growing because:
the temperature not enough sun to undergo photosynthesis
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Permafrost lack of nutrients
Thin active layer of soil roots are not able to obtain a high holding
capacity to withstand the wind
Ground is always moving and shifting due to melting and freezing of
ice
Generally, the Arctic is:
North of the treeline (taiga)
Continuous permafrost
North of July 10 degree isotherm
In Canada, the territories of Nunavut, NWT and Yukon, also northern
Quebec, Labrador and Ontario lowlands
Why is the Arctic so cold?
The sun’s rays are less direct (oblique) so less solar energy is
transferred to this region compared to tropical regions
As well, they have a longer path through the atmosphere to travel and
more opportunity to hit particles and be reflected
In most winters, a “polar vortex” wind (West to East) sets up with
strong air pressure to trap cold winds near the pole
Snow
Max in January, minimum in August
For much of the Arctic, snow can fall in any month
Polar desert snowy, but it doesn’t snow a lot… it just doesn’t melt
Less precipitation because cold air holds less moisture than
warm air
Snow and its melt regulates water supplies and insulates the tundra
surface
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