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BIOL 4673- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 172 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 4673
Professor
Alexandre G R O S J E A N
Study Guide
Final

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Acadia
BIOL 4673
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
Wednesday, January 10 2018
EESA10H3
Lecture 1: Introduction, ground rules, expectations and course structure. Understanding the
health effects of environmental hazards
What is the environment?
Environment is everything that affects a living organism
Effects of environment on human health is so great: air, water, soil(crops, vegetables,
fruits), biota, manmade environment(created by society)
Your environment is your health (but its not the only factor influencing your health) ;
share environment with someone, at the end of the day not everyone gets sick, one can
get sik soeoe else o’t, differet geeti aterial, eeroe arries soethig
different to be prone or not prone to disease
Everything that surrounds you and has an impact on you is your environment
Air you breathe, food you eat, water you drink, people around you, animals,
transportation
Impact of environment is your health, environment good or bad has an impact on your
health
Gene- environment interaction
Models of gene-environment interaction
Genetic makeup increases exposure to an environmental risk factor, how much you
receive, some receive more others less(receive chemical, impact)
Genetic makeup increases susceptibility (more prone, sensitive) to an environmental risk
factor
Genetic makeup and environmental factor are independent risk factors
What is Environmental Health? (1)
According to the WHO:
I its roadest sese, eiroetal health oproises those aspets of hua
health, disease and injuries that are determined or influenced by factors in the
eiroet.
What is Environmental Health? (2)
According to the WHO:
This iludes the stud of oth the diret ad the idiret pathologial effets of arious:
chemical
biological
physical (only man-made)
o housing, urban development, land use, transportation
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2
1. Types of hazards: chemical hazards chemicals in air, water, soil and food e.g.
pesticides, mercury, DDT, dioxins
2. Types of hazards: Biological hazard bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, animals
such as bees and poisonous snakes e.g. mosquito it is a vector, transmit microorganism
from one human to another(animals)
3. Types of hazards: Physical Hazard radiation, fires, tornados, hurricanes, volcanic
eruptions ,and earthquakes are not environmental health hazards(they are natural
disasters). Environmental health only takes into account only physical hazards that are
man-made; buildings, roads, buses
4. Types of hazards: social or behavioural poor diet, smoking, drugs, drinking, poverty
are not environmental health hazards( but the chemicals in tobacco smoke are). Look at
statistics find that poverty is the biggest hazard to environmental health because
poverty has impact on human health, not part of environmental health. Once smoke is
released into environment and travels and impacts other people, second hand smoke,
then it is environmental health
5. Types of hazards: genetic traits health risks associated with chromosomal defect that
causes down syndrome are not environmental health hazards
The Scope of Environmental Health
In summary, central square; chemical, biological, physical this is environmental health
they are interrelated to genetics, natural hazard, social/behavioural hazards, but central
one is the main topics in environmental health
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