GOVN 400 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Sustainable Development, Social Capital, Organizational Culture

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20 Nov 2018
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GOVN 400
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Unit 1
o authority, influence, and control
o contingency theories of leadership
Contingency theories in general focus on the spectrum of task and relationship
and the skills and competencies of the leaders (managers) and their followers.
This approach is based on the premise that different types of people are suited for
leadership in different circumstances. For example, an environment of challenge
and change may call for a leader who is primarily oriented to defining the job and
getting it done. A more stable environment may be better suited to a leader who
focuses on building relationships with followers. As McGill and Slocum put it,
critics of this approach promoted procedures over purpose; they argue that there
was a “need for a leadership that would be unifying and encouraging from the
heart rather than merely utilitarian”
o DWYSYWD (Do What You Say You Will Do)
o The First Principle of Leadership is to simply Do What You Say You Will Do. Leadership
accountability requires a level of ownership that involves making, keeping, and answering for
personal commitments. Simply put, when you hold yourself accountable, those around
you know you can be counted on to complete your responsibilities or follow through on your
promises. When you do what you say you will do you build credibility.
o principles of values-based leadership
Motivating employees by connecting organisational goals to employees’ personal
values.
Values-based leaders communicate organisational values that tell members how
to behave in order to fulfil the organisations mission. They talk about these
values in a way that connects with employees’ personal values, so that
employees come to identify strongly with both the organisation and its mission.
Such leaders focus on core values - the enduring guiding principles that capture
the organisations strengths and character. Because the core values represent
the soul of the organisation, they are likely to remain steadfast in the face of
changing market trends and fads.
In order for employees to believe in the sincerity and depth of the organisations
values, the leadership team must lead by example and communicate the values
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on an ongoing basis to the entire workforce. The values’ effectiveness lies in how
well they are embodied by the organisation as a whole.
Example
The Boeing Company has carefully defined its core values by establishing high
standards in areas such as corporate citizenship, diversity management, and
customer satisfaction. Boeing, which describes its employees as its competitive
advantage, also strongly emphasises its commitment to fostering a participatory
workplace characterised by co-operation and idea sharing.
Boeing has also demonstrated its commitment to the broader community by
making pledges to protect the environment and supporting causes including
education, for example. [1]
o servant leader
The phrase "servant leadership" may not be familiar to a large number of individuals or
corporations, but it's a belief system that is already widely embraced by some of the most
successful organizations in the world. Its essence is a focus on individuals and a
decentralized organizational structure.
o situational leadership
Situational leadership is a leadership style that has been developed and studied by
Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey.Situational leadership refers to when the leader or
manager of an organization must adjust his style to fit the development level of the
followers he is trying to influence.
o social capital
Social capital is a form of economic and culturalcapital in which social networks are
central, transactions marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation, and market agents
produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
o ten commitments of leadership
o values-based leadership
Motivating employees by connecting organisational goals to employees' personal values. ...
They talk about thesevalues in a way that connects with employees' personal values, so that
employees come to identify strongly with both the organisation and its mission.
1. The concept and practice of leadership is shifting from “command and
control” to “collaborative and consensus.” Describe three factors that explain
this shift.
Previously, leaders had authority based upon their position, but there has
been a recent move to an approach based on “collaboration and consensus
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