HRMT 326 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Fraud, White Blood Cell, Urine

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HRMT 326
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Unit 1
The Eleven systems of the Human Body
Endocrine system:
Hormone producing glands and cells in several other organs
Regulates body activities by releasing hormones ( chemical messengers
transported in blood from endocrine gland or tissue to target organ.
Includes the Pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid,
parathyroid glands, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries and testes.
Lymphatic System:
Returns proteins and fluid from blood, Carrie lipids from GI tract to blood,
contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B and T ells that protect against
disease causing microbes
Includes Lymphatic Fluid and vessels: spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and
tonsils.
Cells that carry out immune response such as B and T cells
Cardiovascular System:
The heart carries blood, blood carries O2 and nutrients to cells and CO2 and
waste away from cells
Helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, water content,
Blood components help defeat against disease and repair damaged blood
vessels.
Includes blood, heart and blood vessels.
Respiratory system:
Transport O2 and CO2, helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids; air
flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds
Includes the lungs, pharynx, larynx ( voice box), trachea and bronchial tubes
Digestive system:
Achieves chemical and physical breakdown of food, absorb nutrients and get
rid of waste
includes mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small and large intestine. Also includes
other accessory glands such as gallbladder, pancreas, liver and salivary gland.
Reproductive System:
Releases hormones that regulate reproduction and other processes
Includes, epididymis ( covers the top of the testes), Ducts or vas deferens,
seminal vesicles and prostate
Urinary system:
Produces, stores, and eliminates urine, helps maintain acid-base balance,
maintains mineral balance and regulates red blood cells production
Kidney, bladder, urethra, ureters
Basic Life processes:
An easy way to remember all 6 is: we go through reproduction stage which
happens because of cells going through differentiation, .Once we are born the
growth happens because we eat and metabolize things to give us energy and
allow movement and responsiveness
Metabolism
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Is the sum of all chemical process that happens in the body
One phase is Catabolism: throwing down food or the breaking down of
complex chemical substances into simpler components
The other phase is anabolism: building of smaller component of complex
chemical substances.
An example of this is the digestive track catabolize (split) food into amino
acid then theses amino acids are anabolize (build) new proteins that make up
the body structure
Responsiveness
Is Body’s ability to detect and respond to changes
For example when you turn your head toward a sound or when temperature
increases because of something is going on internally.
Movement:
Motion of the whole body including organs, single cells and even tiny
structures inside the cell.
For ex. When you eat meal containing fat, gallbladder contracts and releases
bile into GI tract to help digest them
Another example is when white blood cell move from the blood stream to an
affected are to help with clean up and repair.
Growth:
Is the increase in body size that results from an increase in size of existing
cells, increase in number of cells or both.
Differentiation:
Is the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.
Stem cells: cells that can divide and give rise to cell that can undergo this
process.
For example: single fertilized egg ( ovum) develops into an embryo and so
on.
Reproduction:
Refers to either the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair and
replacement or the production of new individuals.
Formation happens through cell division and production happen through the
fertilization of an ovum by a sperm cell to form a zygote.
Autopsy or Necropsy
Postmortem exam of the body and dissection of internal organs to confirm or
determine cause of death
Homeostasis
Is the condition of equilibrium( balance) in body’s internal environment
because of constant interaction of the body’s many regular process.
If homeostatic imbalance is moderate, disorder or disease can occur and
even death if its severe.
Body fluids:
Dilute, water solution that have chemicals that are found inside cells and the
are around them.
Intracellular fluids (ICF)
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