PSYC 379 Study Guide - Final Guide: Theory Of Planned Behavior, Cognitive Dissonance, Electromyography

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Attitude - A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea. (p. 189)
attitude scale - A multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person’s attitude toward
some object. (p. 191)
bogus pipeline - A fake lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give
truthful answers to sensitive questions. (p. 191)
central route to persuasion - The process by which a person thinks carefully about a
communication and is influenced by the strength of its arguments. (p. 201)
cognitive dissonance theory - The theory that holding inconsistent cognitions arouses
psychological tension that people become motivated to reduce. (p. 221)
elaboration - The process of thinking about and scrutinizing the arguments contained in a
persuasive communication. (p. 201)
facial electromyograph (EMG) - An electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity
associated with emotions and attitudes. (p. 192)
implicit attitude - An attitude—such as prejudice—that one is not aware of having. (p. 193)
Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) - A way of measuring unconscious
attitudes, similar to the IAT, that focuses on cognition and specific relations rather than general
associations. (p. 195)
inoculation hypothesis - The idea that exposure to weak versions of a persuasive argument
increases later resistance to that argument. (p. 216)
insufficient deterrence - A condition in which people refrain from engaging in a desirable
activity, even when only mild punishment is threatened. (p. 222)
insufficient justification - A condition in which people freely perform an attitude-discrepant
behaviour without receiving a large reward. (p. 222)
need for cognition (NC) - A personality variable that distinguishes people on the basis of how
much they enjoy effortful cognitive activities. (p. 214)
peripheral route to persuasion - The process by which a person does not think carefully about
a communication and is influenced instead by superficial cues. (p. 201)
persuasion - The process by which attitudes are changed. (p. 200)
psychological reactance - The theory that people react against threats to their freedom by
asserting themselves and perceiving the threatened freedom as more attractive. (p. 217)
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