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BIOL 1F25 Notes.docx

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Brock University

BIO Lecture 1 7/3/2012 2:34:00 PM 4 Classes of Chemicals  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acid Carbs, Lipids, protein calculate energy in food source Carbs - Sugars such as: o Sucrose o Starch o Cellulose o Glycogen - Most of our energy comes from breaking down glucose - Animals store glucose as glycogen - Plants store glucose as starch - Water soluble  Hydrophilic Lipids - Not water soluble  Hydrophobic Oleic Acid Palmitic Acid - The more unsaturated, the more the kinks in Fatty Acids(FA) - The more saturated, the less the kinks in FA - FA’s react with glycerol to form two types of molecules the body can work with:  Triglycerides o Three fatty acids bonded to them which are stored in fat cells  Phosphoglycerides o Have two FA’s and a third spot which is taken up by Hydrophilic chemicals Phosphoglycerides o Diglycerides made from two palmitic cells o Both chains run right beside each other; no kinks o Has both Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic ends - Lipids are very high energy as compared to sugars Protein - Made up of 20 different cells; amino acids(AA) - Peptide Bond – bond between the Carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the next amino acid - All AA’s have common features, but the R group determines the activity of the AA  Each AA has different R group  R group(side chain, radical group) has different reactive properties o Hydrophobic/hydrophilic, negative/positive  Different attractions cause a bend/fold in the structure of an AA cell Cells - Two kinds of cells:  Prokaryotic o Unicellular organisms with no organelles o Enclosed by membrane – made up of lipid bilayer studded with protein o Cell Wall for protection o Outer Membrane to stick to or invade its environment  Eukaryotic o Complex w/ various organelles  Energy Chemical o Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP) o Hydrolysis = H O + ATP ->ADP + P + Energy 2 i  ATP is at high energy state trying to get to lower energy state  Biochemical processes couple themselves to the ATP hydrolysis and take advantage of its way down to a lower energy state - About 3000 enzymes in our body to help make biochemical processes run smoothly - Catabolic reactions can happen without energy; goal is to provide energy to make ATP - Anabolic reactions require energy; need ATP - Metabolism recycles ATP - Glucose has 4 cal/gram - Gasoline has 6 cal/gram - Metabolic pathways for breakdown of nutrients are interconnected and provide the control we need to balance what we have and what we need - All takes place in the Mitochondria - Glycolysis - takes place in the cytoplasm and produces 2 ATP per Glucose - The Krebs cycle - takes place inside the mitochondria and can provide another 34-36 ATP  In these cycles, CO 2s removed at various points, which can eventually generate up to 6 CO fo2 every glucose NAD and FAD - These cofactors take the hydrogen’s from the glucose, helping it break down - They pass them to oxygen so we get energy from the glucose - The electrons and hydrogen’s removed from the glucose are passed along the various points on the electron transport chain  The cofactors are reduced to NADH and FADH 2  This cycle is repeated continuously Proton Gradient - Famous electron transport chain found on the inner membrane on the mitochondria that makes the ATP - Energy is used in moving hydrogen’s and electrons slowly to pump hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space ATP Synthase Complex - Protons at higher energy state are allowed to fall through the Synthase - Protons fall into the matrix which turns the green membrane which causes the red part of the matrix to bend and twist which squeezes the ADP and P i to form ATP Lecture 2 7/3/2012 2:34:00 PM Nucleus & DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA) is in the nucleus - DNA is the information containing molecule which is monitored, stored, read and replicated in the nucleus - In the nucleus are genes, organised in chromosomes - Genes have restricted access controlled by cytoplasm, and messages coming from outside the cell - Red blood cells do not contain a nucleus  After maturation the erythrocyte sheds everything, which leaves it as a bag of hemoglobin  One cell can carry up to 270,000,000 hemoglobin molecules  Our body produces 200 billion RBC’s a day and has 25 trillion at any given point  The cell lives for 120 days delivering and O 2nd CO 2 - Watson and Crick discovered the DNA double helix  Due to the X-Ray diffraction study of Dr. Rosalind Franklin which lead to photo 51 - DNA:  the molecule is a double twisted pair of strands(helices)  backbone made of deoxyribose and phosphate  Bases of the double helix: Adenine(A), Thymine(T), Guanine(G) or Cytosine(C)  Combination of deoxyribose and phosphate is called a nucleotide  Held together by hydrogen bonding  Pairing of A & T, and C & G  Code is based on three nucleotide bases called codons - We have ~ 23,000 genes the code for something with 3 billion bases spread out over 23 different strands called chromosomes  We have 22 pairs of chromosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (2 X’s = female, X & Y = male) - The result of the DNA code is protein - The sequence of amino acids is coded in our DNA - Central Dogma: reading DNA code, transcribing to mobile version and translating information into proteins - U instead of T on codon slide because Ribonucleic Acid(RNA) uses Uracil instead of Thymine - RNA has sugar as ribose instead of deoxyribose in the DNA - DNA cells can make cell structures, enzymes and send signals to other cells - DNA cells can duplicate (Mitosis) in cell replication - Genes that code proteins have ~ 1000 genes/chromosome - Karyotyping: the lining up and identifying individual chromosomes, which is determining the number and type of each chromosome  The homologue is similar in length and have a similar banding pattern (dyed by a special chemical to show different regions of DNA strand)  Darker bands are dense and don’t have sequences for coding protein, AKA heterochromatin  Lighter bands are less dense, likely to code for protein, AKA euchromatin - When a zygote is formed from a sperm and egg cell, they have only 23 chromosomes, which is called a haploid  A full complement of these chromosomes is called a diploid - Allele = another version of same gene, usually found on homologous chromosome - Having both alleles same is referred to as homozygous - Having different alleles is referred to as heterozygous Lecture 3 7/3/2012 2:34:00 PM - Cells replicate daily, others may have been there since we were born - In the cycle the cell is:  Interphasing (first growth phase, synthesis, second growth phase, mitotic phase) o Making proteins o Making enzymes o Doing metabolic things  Mitosis/Replicating (synthesis phase) First Growth Phase (G1)  Central Dogma  DNA is read and transcribed in to RNA(mRNA for messenger) o So it can leave the nucleus  The mRNA is read and translated by Ribosomes using molecules that have an anti codon and specific amino acid (transfer RNA – tRNA)  Transcription  Part of the gene unzips, separating complimentary strands  Allows polymerase to get in to make complimentary strand of RNA by changing T to U  The polymerase keeps going to reach the ends of the gene  The strand and polymerase leave the DNA and the DNA zips back up  RNA leaves the nucleus through a nucleus pore  Each tRNA has an anticodon and amino acid at each end  After the ribosomes have synthesized the protein on the Rough ER, they can enter the ER where enzymes can alter the protein Synthesis Phase(S)  The cell stops at a checkpoint before it can move into the synthesis phase  This state of the cell is called G0  Semi-constructive Replication: the copy DNA contains the original DNA molecules from the two original DNA strands  The replicated DNA has to be Se
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