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BIOL 1F90 Study Guide - Final Guide: Pilipili, Omasum, Pteridophyte

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Fiona Hunter
Study Guide

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April Exam Review
10 phyla of land plants and how they’re grouped together
Liverworts, Hornworts, Mosses, Lycophytes, Pteridophytes, Cycads, Gingkos, Conifers,
Gnetophytes, Angiosperms
Bryophytes: Liverworts, Hornworts, Mossesseedless non-vascular plants
Lycophytes, Pteridophytesseedless vascular plants
Gymnosperms: Cycads, Gingkos, Conifer, Gnetophytesseeded vascular plants
Angiospermsflowering plants
Abomasum vs (omasum, reticulum and rumen)
Omasum reticulum and rumen are esophageal pouches known as the forestomach in
herbivoresused to help digest cellulose
The rumen and reticulum have cellulose digesting enzymes, omasum absorbs some
water and salts from the food
Abomasum is the true stomach, contains enzymes and acids to break down food,
eventually releases the chyme into the intestines
Apomorphy vs synapomorphy vs autoapomorphy
Apomorphy: derived traits, more recently evolved, further away from the common
Synapomorphy: share derived traits
Autoapomorphy: unique derived traits
Archaea vs Bacteria
Archaea are relatives of bacteria with slight modificationsevolved from a common
Both are prokaryotes
Archaea more closely related to Eukarya than Bacteriaarchaea engulfed a
proteobacteria and a cyanobacteria to develop eukaryotes

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Archaea are often (but not always) extremophileslove extreme environments
Bacteria are found in more moderate conditions
Autotrophs vs heterotrophs
Autotrophs can synthesize all of their own organic material, don’t consume anything for
Heterotrophs need to consume at least one product for energy
Beneficial microbes (examples)
Lactobacillus acidophilus is a rod-shaped bacterial microbe which produces vitamin K
and lactase, can live at low pH’slives in our upper digestive tract
bitter greenish-brown alkaline (basic) fluid that aids digestion and is secreted and
produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
bile contains bicarbonate ions to neutralize acids from the stomach, and bile salts to
solubilize fats
A type of green algae considered to be the closest related to common ancestor which
gave rise to land plants
Share reproductive features with primitive land plants such as flagellate sperm, and
large, non-motile eggs.
Shares photosynthetic features (green plastids)
In charophyceans, a layer of polymer known as sporopollenin prevents zygotes from
drying outshows the adaptation that allowed the movement into land and away from
A protist which features a distinctive collar surrounding its flagella
Modern protist most closely related to the common ancestor of animals
Unicellular eukaryotes, can be single (free living) or colonial
pulpy acid fluid passing from stomach to small intestine (gastric juice and partly digested
food) the partially digested food mass

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Cilia vs pili
Pili are threadlike cell surface structures in bacteria and archaea that aid in
movementallows bacteria to twitch or glide across a surface
Cilia are hair-like fibres on the edge of protist cells to aid in movement
Coelomates vs pseudocoelomates vs acoelomates
Coelom: a body cavity in metazoans located between the intestinal canal and body wall
Coelomates: any animal possessing a coelom
Coelomates have their coelom completely lined with mesoderm
Pseudocoelomates have their coelom not completely lined with mesoderm
Acoelomates don’t possess a coelom, lack the body cavity between body wall and
digestive tract
Connective tissues (examples)
Connect, anchor and support
Includes blood, adipose, cartilage, bone, loose and dense tissue
Provides extra cellular matrix around cells
Can be fibrous, liquid, or jellylike
Control of digestive system (hormonal vs neural)
Neural: controls muscular/glandular activity by local nerves in alimentary canal
oLong distance regulation done by brain
Hormonal: secreted mainly by cells scattered throughout the epithelium of stomach and
small intestine
oTarget cells in pancreas and gallbladder
Dentition in carnivores, herbivores, omnivores
Carnivores have sharp, thin canine teeth in the front of their mouthspecialized for
ripping and tearing flesh
Herbivores have flatter, broader teeth in the back of their mouthspecialized for grinding
up plant matter to increase the surface area for enzymes to work on
Omnivores have a combination of both, have canines in the front for ripping and broader
grinding teeth in the back
Deuterostome vs protostome
Blastospore is the indentation in the endoderm that becomes the opening to the outside
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