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April BIOL 1F90 Exam Review

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Brock University
Fiona Hunter

BIOL1F90 April Exam Review 10 phyla of land plants and how they’re grouped together • LHMLPCGCGA • Liverworts, Hornworts, Mosses, Lycophytes, Pteridophytes, Cycads, Gingkos, Conifers, Gnetophytes, Angiosperms • Bryophytes: Liverworts, Hornworts, Mossesseedless non-vascular plants • Lycophytes, Pteridophytesseedless vascular plants • Gymnosperms: Cycads, Gingkos, Conifer, Gnetophytesseeded vascular plants • Angiospermsflowering plants Abomasum vs (omasum, reticulum and rumen) • Omasum reticulum and rumen are esophageal pouches known as the forestomach in herbivoresused to help digest cellulose • The rumen and reticulum have cellulose digesting enzymes, omasum absorbs some water and salts from the food • Abomasum is the true stomach, contains enzymes and acids to break down food, eventually releases the chyme into the intestines Apomorphy vs synapomorphy vs autoapomorphy • Apomorphy: derived traits, more recently evolved, further away from the common ancestor • Synapomorphy: share derived traits • Autoapomorphy: unique derived traits Archaea vs Bacteria • Archaea are relatives of bacteria with slight modificationsevolved from a common ancestor • Both are prokaryotes • Archaea more closely related to Eukarya than Bacteriaarchaea engulfed a proteobacteria and a cyanobacteria to develop eukaryotes • Archaea are often (but not always) extremophileslove extreme environments • Bacteria are found in more moderate conditions Autotrophs vs heterotrophs • Autotrophs can synthesize all of their own organic material, don’t consume anything for energy • Heterotrophs need to consume at least one product for energy Beneficial microbes (examples) • Lactobacillus acidophilus is a rod-shaped bacterial microbe which produces vitamin K and lactase, can live at low pH’slives in our upper digestive tract Bile • bitter greenish-brown alkaline (basic) fluid that aids digestion and is secreted and produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder • bile contains bicarbonate ions to neutralize acids from the stomach, and bile salts to solubilize fats Charophyceans • A type of green algae considered to be the closest related to common ancestor which gave rise to land plants • Share reproductive features with primitive land plants such as flagellate sperm, and large, non-motile eggs. • Shares photosynthetic features (green plastids) • In charophyceans, a layer of polymer known as sporopollenin prevents zygotes from drying outshows the adaptation that allowed the movement into land and away from water Choanoflagellates • A protist which features a distinctive collar surrounding its flagella • Modern protist most closely related to the common ancestor of animals • Unicellular eukaryotes, can be single (free living) or colonial Chyme • pulpy acid fluid passing from stomach to small intestine (gastric juice and partly digested food) the partially digested food mass Cilia vs pili • Pili are threadlike cell surface structures in bacteria and archaea that aid in movementallows bacteria to twitch or glide across a surface • Cilia are hair-like fibres on the edge of protist cells to aid in movement Coelomates vs pseudocoelomates vs acoelomates • Coelom: a body cavity in metazoans located between the intestinal canal and body wall • Coelomates: any animal possessing a coelom • Coelomates have their coelom completely lined with mesoderm • Pseudocoelomates have their coelom not completely lined with mesoderm • Acoelomates don’t possess a coelom, lack the body cavity between body wall and digestive tract Connective tissues (examples) • Connect, anchor and support • Includes blood, adipose, cartilage, bone, loose and dense tissue • Provides extra cellular matrix around cells • Can be fibrous, liquid, or jellylike Control of digestive system (hormonal vs neural) • Neural: controls muscular/glandular activity by local nerves in alimentary canal o Long distance regulation done by brain • Hormonal: secreted mainly by cells scattered throughout the epithelium of stomach and small intestine o Target cells in pancreas and gallbladder Dentition in carnivores, herbivores, omnivores • Carnivores have sharp, thin canine teeth in the front of their mouthspecialized for ripping and tearing flesh • Herbivores have flatter, broader teeth in the back of their mouthspecialized for grinding up plant matter to increase the surface area for enzymes to work on • Omnivores have a combination of both, have canines in the front for ripping and broader grinding teeth in the back Deuterostome vs protostome • Blastospore is the indentation in the endoderm that becomes the opening to the outside • Deuteurostome: radial cleavage – cleavage indeterminate (each cell produced by cleavage has the ability to develop into a complete embryo), pluripotent stem cells, blastopore becomes anus • Protostome: spiral cleavage – cleavage determinate (each cell has their fate determined early on, if you separated them none of the cells could develop into a viable embryo independently), blastopore becomes mouth Detrimental microbes (examples) • Pathogens and parasitesYersinia pestis is the bacteria responsible for bubonic plague which detrimented Europe Diatom • Single-celled algae with a cell wall made of cilica Digestive tracts of herbivores vs carnivores (structure and function) • Herbivores have longer digestive tracts because it takes a long time to absorb nutrients from plant material. They also have a large caecum, which helps along with enzymes to break down the plant and cellulose. • Carnivores have shorter digestive tracts because they can obtain nutrients from the meat more quickly; they have a small caecum because of small plant diet. • the herbivore’s small intestine is much larger to allow for longer passage time for the plant material to be broken downmeat is easy to digest enzymatically, so the small intestine can be shorter in the carnivore • both animals have a cecum (microorganisms for cellulytic enzymes)rabbit eating a lot of cellulose needs a much larger cecum for more symbiotic organisms to aid in cellulose digestion Dinosaur extinctions • Happened at the end of the Cretaceous period (marked by the K/T boundary)responsible for the proliferation of angiosperms in the void left by the extinction of many gymnosperms and lycophytes and pteridophytes Double fertilization of angiosperms • Angiosperms undergo a double fertilizationinstead of one sperm disintegrating like in gymnosperms, the second sperm fertilizes a dikaryotic cell to form a triploid endosperm, which serves to nourish the zygote as it develops Ecdysozoa vs Lophotrochozoa - Ecdysozoa are named for ecdysis (molting) - all secrete a nonliving cuticlelike a snake shedding its skin - Lophotrochozoans have stems from lophophore (feeding tentacles) and trochophore larvalike hydras Endosperm • A triploid composed of the haploid sperm and the diploid dikaryote, which serves to nourish the zygote as it develops • the part of the seed that acts as food storage for the developing embryo • Usually contains starch, protein, and other nutrients Enzymes involved in digestion of the macromolecules • hydrolytic enzymes • digestion is required to convert polymers into smaller units that can absorbed across plasma membranes • hydrolyze the chemical bonds in carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids • some substances such as vitamins do not require digestion and can be absorbed straight into the bloodstream • Enzymes include amylase (salivary and pancreatic), pepsin, pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin, pancreatic lipase Epithelial tissues (examples) • sheets of densely packed cells that cover the body organs and line the walls of body cavities • Specialized to protect and secrete (pancreas) and absorb (gastrointestinal) • Can function as selective barrier • Can be one cell thick to allow for the diffusion of gases/molecules across it, or several layers thick to provide protection • Can be squamous, cuboidal or columnar depending on the function of the cells Essential nutrients (examples) • Certain compounds can’t be synthesized from ingested or stored precursor molecules • MUST be obtained in diet Four groups… 1. Essential amino acids o 8 of them – can’t be stored – obtained easily from meat but not all plants 2. Essential fatty acids o Unsaturated fats – important in oxygen transfer and hemoglobin production 3. Vitamins o Serve as coenzymes o Water soluble (ex. C) not stored, fat soluble (ex. A) stored in adipose tissue 4. Minerals o Inorganic ions – many required in very small amounts – some can be stored (ex. Calcium) Evolutionary relationships of the land plants • The bryophytes came first, followed by the seedless vascular plants (lycophytes and pteridophytes), followed by the gymnosperms, and lastly the angiosperms Family Felidae • The taxonomic family of cats Feedforward regulation • Animals body prepares for a change in a variable before it occurs (anticipatory) - Adrenaline begins to pump while you're at the start line of a race, but haven’t actually started running yet • Speeds up homeostatic responses and minimizes deviations from the set point Fruits vs seeds • Fruits are formed when ovary undergoes changes, become dry/hard or enlarged/fleshy, generally triggered by signals accompanying seed formationonly angiosperms • Seeds consists primarily of the external seed coat, embryo, and endospermall gymnosperms (naked seeds, not enclosed by any fruit) Gametangia vs Sporangia • Gametangia protects developing gametes from drying out and microbial attackAntheridia produces/protects sperm, archegonia encloses an egg • Sporangia is a protective enclosure in which spores are producedmegasporangia is where female gametophyte develops and produces eggs (only makes a single gamete) microsporangia produces the male gametophyte (pollen) Gram positive & negative bacteria • Gram positive have a thick peptidoglycan layer, purple dye held in thick layer (cells stain purple), vulnerable to penicillin (interferes with cell wall synthesis) • Gram negative have less peptidoglycan and a thin outer envelope of lipopolysaccharides, retain final pink stain (cells stain pink, not purple), resists penicillin Haploid gametophyte vs diploid sporophyte Haploid Gametophyte - haploid multicellular adult stage in the alternation of generations during life cycles of plants and algae - produces haploid gametes - from mitotic cell division of spores, which are produced by meiosis in sporophytes Diploid Sporophyte - diploid multicellular stage in life of plant or algae - It develops from the zygote produced when a haploid egg cell is fertilized by a haploid sperm and each sporophyte Historical CO2 levels • Vascular plants were responsible for a huge plunge in CO2 levels in the Carboniferous era because the plants retained carbon and did not decompose after dying Homeostatic controls (sensors, integrators, effectors) • Sensor: monitors particular variabletypically neurons • Integrator: compares signal from sensor to baseline set pointcompares input from sensor to a set pointin the brain • Effector: compensates for deviations between set point and actual valueproduces a response that compensates for the change caused by the homeostatic challengevaries, can be muscular, hormonal, etc. • Homeostatic challenge (cold temperatures)Sensor (neurons in the skin)Integrator (brain)Effector (skeletal muscles)response (shivering to increase body temperature) Homeostasis • process of adjusting to external environment to maintain a stable internal environment • Example: homeostatic mechanisms will return blood glucose levels to normal if a meal is skipped Homoplasy • occurs when characteristics are similar but not derived from a common ancestor • Often results from convergent evolution (analogous) • Example: wings on both birds and bats How are seeds formed? • Composed of the ovule: megasporangium with a single spore and a very small egg- producing gametophyte inside, enclosed by integuments Hox genes - Hox genes are a group of related genes that control the body plan of the embryo along the anterior-posterior axis. - After the embryonic segments have formed, the Hox proteins determine the type of segment structures that will form on a given segment. Human digestive tract vs ruminant digestive tract • Human digestive tract: mouth  esophagus  stomach  small intestine  large intestine  rectum  anus • Ruminant digestive tract: mouth  forestomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum)  abomasum  small intestine  large inestine  anus • The ruminant contains a forestomach made of 3 esophageal pouches, composed of the rumen, reticulum (these two contain cellulose digesting enzymes), and omasum (absorbs water and salts from food)food must pass through this forestomach before going to the abomasum, or true stomach, which contains proteolytic enzymes and acids to break down food Intracellular digestion vs extracellular digestion • Intracellular digestion is only in some very simple invertebrates (sponges and some single-celled organisms)uses phagocytosis to bring food particles directly into a cell like an amoeba (encapsulate a food particle and bring it into a cell) • Extracellular digestion is digestive, can consume large amounts of food, protects interior of cells from hydrolytic enzymes, occurs in a gastrovascular cavity (one opening, one exit, digestion and distribution of nutrients, food particles eventually phagocytosed) Microspores vs macrospores • megasporangia is where female gametophyte develops and produces eggs (only makes a single gamete) • mi
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