BIOL 1F90 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Integral Membrane Protein, Actin, Peptide

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BIO1F90 Review:
Chapter 3:
Organic molecules; carbon atom and the study of organic
molecules, classes of organic molecules and macromolecules,
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Carbon: The chemical basis of all life
- ability to form 4 covalent bonds with another carbon and up to 3
other atoms
- this allows a vast number of organic compounds to be formed from
only a few
chemical elements
-carbon bonds may occur in congurations that are linear ring like or
highly branched
- these molecular shapes can produce molecules with a variety of
functions
- ability of carbon to form both polar and non-polar bonds
-serves as a backbone for an astonishing variety of molecules
- carbon bonds are stable and the dierent temps associates with life
Functional Groups: groups of atoms with special chemical features that
contribute
to the molecules properties
- each type of functional group exhibits the same
properties in all molecules in which it occurs
Isomers: 2 structures with an identical molecular formula but dierent
structures and
Characteristics’’
Structural isomers: contain the same atoms but in dierent bonding
relationships
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Stereoisomers: identical bonding relationship but dierent spatial
positioning of the atoms
Geometric isomers:
1) Cis: the 2 hydrogen atoms linked to the 2 carbons of a a C=C
double bond
are on the same side of the carbons
2) Trans: the 2 hydrogen atoms linked to the 2 carbons of a
C=C double bond
are on the opposite side
Enantiomers: Pair of molecules that are mirror images
Classes of Organic molecules and macromolecules:
- 4 major categories of macromolecules
- lipids
- carbohydrates
- nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
- proteins
Polymer: large olecules formed by linking together many
monomers
Monomer: smaller molecules/ building blocks
Structure and function of each type of macromolecules
depend on: - Nature of their monomers
- # of monomers linked together
- the 3-dimensional way in which they are linked
Condensation reaction: 2 or more molecules combine into a larger one
with the loss of a small
molecule
-
dehydration reaction:
condensation reaction in which the lost
molecule in
water
Hydrolysis reaction: process by which a polymer breaks down into a
monomer
- a molecule of water is added each time a monomer is
released
Carbohydrates include simple sugars and polymers composed of
sugar monomers
Carbohydrates: composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
-represented by the general formula: Cn(H2O)n, where n is a
whole number
- most of the carbon atoms in a carbohydrate are linked to a
hydrogen atom
and a hydroxyl group
Sugars: small carbohydrates that may taste sweet
-Monosaccharides: can join together to form larger
carbohydrates
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- Disaccharides: Carbohydrates composed of 2
monosaccharides
- Glycosidic Bond: Bond formed between 2 sugar molecules
-Monosaccharides:
simplest sugars
- Most common are 5 or 6 carbons
- Pentose’s-ribose (C5H10O5), deoxyribose (C5H10O4)
- Hexose – glucose (C6H12O6)
- dierent ways to depict structures; ring or linear
-
Glucose isomers:
Structural isomers- dierent arrangement of same elements
- glucose and galactose
- Stereoisomers- a and b- glucose
-hydroxyl group of carbon 1 above or below ring
- D and L- glucose
- enantiomers- mirror image
Disaccharides: carbohydrates composed of 2 monosaccharides joined by
dehydration or
condensation reaction
- glycosidic bond
- broken apart by hydrolysis
- examples: sucrose, maltose, lactose
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