Carbon: forms up to 4 bonds, forms strong covalent bonds can make long chains or rings (from 1 1000"s of carbons) Structure: c2h2 linear (1d, c2h4 trigonal planar (2d, ch4 tetrahedral (3d) Other common representations: lewis structure/kekule structure, skeletal structure/line-bond structure, each vertex is a carbon atom, each unshown bond is a hydrogen atom, condensed structure. The atom: schr dinger model (1926: every atom has a series of atomic orbitals mathematical functions having wave characteristics, 1s, (2s, 2p), (3s, 3p, 3d) . *lower energy = more stable (closer to the nucleus) *octet rule is violated does not have to have 8 electrons. *we have 4 orbitals that can hold a max of 8 electrons ex. Carbon: 1s2, 2s2, 2p2 (the valence shells is 2, therefore 4 valence electrons) ex. Oxygen 2p: | || | or 2p: | | || (doesn"t matter where it goes b/c its degenerate) Kinetics: (how: explains how reactions take place, how quickly it occurs.