CHYS 1F90 Winter Review.docx

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Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

CHYS 1F90 Winter Review Lecture 6 - Globalization Global Inequality - The extent to which income and wealth is distributed in an unevenly among the world's population - Religion and culture - Geography -> where are you located will influence your life - Internal inequalities o Within nations o Within families  Older children might have more privileges than younger children Globalization – features of it; why it matters - Global flow of capital and commodities & the regulated movement of people o E.g. tourism, adoption, overseas and migrant workers, immigrants/refugees, policies (e.g. CRC) - Child work o General differences between industrialized nations and the global south  Child work more common in global south  Link to poverty  Link to demand for cheap labour  Lack of supported education o To fix:  Accessible education  Integrated approach -> combining work and education  Monitoring Internalization of capital - Multinational corporate expansion - Effects in terms of production and consumption - E.g. Klein, Naomi. 2000. No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies o The side around how things are made o Another side – what’s done with the garbage at the end -> often get shipped overseas and the better parts are extracted  Bad for peoples health - Multiple investors - Limited skill training - Cheap goods from problematic conditions - Erosion of local services Multinational corporate expansion World Bank and Structural Adjustment Programs - Strings attached – structural adjustment programs - Linked to neoliberal economic policies Maternal and child health, including example of baby formula - Maternal health o 1000 women die daily from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth o 2010 maternal death rates, per 100 000 births:  Chad 1100 (highest)  Estonia 2  Canada 12 o Problems  Things that can develop during pregnancy  Obstructed labour  Anemia/HIV/AIDS  Infections or bleeding after childbirth  Link to age: teens vulnerable o Need for care o Over 7.6 mill children under 5 die from malnutrition and preventable diseases each year o 2012 infant mortality, per 1000 births:  Afghanistan 121.3  Monaco 1.8  Canada 4.85 - Infant and child health o Vulnerable first month of life o Vulnerable while under 5 o Needs for care  Nutrition, antibiotics, etc. - Health issues affected by.. o Political and religious systems, including conflict o Gender inequalities o Poverty and class inequalities o Global inequalities and aid - E.g. Milk formula in the Philippines o “Milking the Formula” The guardian weekly (J. Moorhead) o Breastfeeding vs formula o Marketing formula o Shift to formula o Consequences  Babies getting sick  Marketed to these babies because they have no money  Don’t boil water for formula o Global connections  World Health Organization 1981 code  All about breastfeeding -> tried to stop the marketing of formula  Philippine 2006 Milk Code  Not allowed to market formula  PHAP (Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Association of the Philippines)  US involvement  If you continue with this code, you might see consequences in their investment -> milk code no longer enforced Aid from industrialized nations - Doesn’t address the underlying problems - Tied-aid -> only helping them if there is a benefit to the country Lecture 7 – Class, Inequality & Poverty Definitions of class - Differences in wealth: “money and valuable goods a person or family controls minus outstanding debt” (Macionis 259) - Class as occupation, with a focus on income - Relation to means of production o Relational o Proletariat, petty-bourgeoisie and bourgeoisie - Skills, educational resources - Class composite Ideology of classlessness - Idea that class isn’t relevant, even though it is - Middle class -> most people believe they are middle class (e.g. lower middleclass) Growing gap (in terms of class) - Since 1980 top earnings up by 16.4%, lowest falling by 20.6% - Net worth of those with income over $75 000 up 15.2% since 1999 - Net worth of those with income $20 000-$29 000 down 21.2% since 1999 Patterns of poverty in Canada - Some stats o About 1 in 10 children in poverty (2008, after tax income) o Children and youth 38% of food bank users but only 20% of the population o Average household debt: $112 329 o EG Campaign 2000 - ard.pdf - Some patterns o Indigenous people: 1 in 4 in poverty o Visible minorities = same o Single moms: 1 in 5 children in poverty o Working poor – 1 in 3 Habitus, field and cultural capital - Habitas – a way of being within that culture, makes it comfortable o How you learn that habitas, and learn to embrace and be successful, what is valuable The deficit model Contributors to class inequality in Canada a) Individual level o Parental un/employment  Underemployment -> 30 hours a week  Parents capacity to earn o Wealth (or not) o Parental education and skill  Direct link to employment -> better chance of getting a well-paid job o Timing of parenthood o Family formation  Larger family takes more money o Dis/ability  Mental illness, accidents, malnutrition  Extra costs b) Community/national level o Un/employment levels o VIDEO: Poor no more (  Local grocery store making people work under full-time hours which makes it so that they cannot get benefits  Hard to find work  Every day out of work = more and more in debt o Rising costs  ratio.html  purchasing a house is out of reach  food, tuition ^  pay is not keeping with inflation o Inequalities linked to culture and race  E.g. new immigrant poverty  E.g. aboriginal poverty  Residential schools o Value of addressing at community level c) Policy level o E.g. job creation o E.g. taxation patterns o E.g. social services: health, education, EI Effects of class inequality in Canada - Health o Links to infant mortality, birth weights, likelihood of illness, nutrition and malnutrition, disabilities, and unintentional injuries o E.g. Food deserts  An area, usually in a city but not always, where it’s very difficult to get good food  Low-income housing is far from the good food  Not nutritional  Closest thing could be a mcdonalds or a corner school  Hard to get good food, less likely to buy it = bad food - Education o Higher income -> more opportunities for education o Lower income -> less opportunities for education - Quality of housing o Low income kids are likely to not have good housing o Health issues and overcrowding  E.g. huge mouse issue o Moving lots - > limited number of options - Engagement with criminal justice system o More likely to be victims - Quality of life o Do you have the option to retreating into a room by yourself? o Do you have the option to go on a trip to relax? - Stigma and status o Status - > the things that you can gain o Study in North bay  Asked children about their experiences in poverty  Feeling ashamed that dad can get a job  Pretending you forgot your lunch when you couldn’t afford to bring one Concerted cultivation Accomplishment of natural growth Lecture 8 Schools and Socialization Social reproduction theory Hidden Curriculum Culture - the “set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social goup . . . it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs” (UNESCO 2002) Ethnicity Race - defined as a group of people based on physical characteristics that are deemed to be socially significant Racism/racial discrimination - believing that one racial group is superior to others, that physical appearance in
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