CHYS 3P15 Review.docx

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Child and Youth Studies
Heather Lawford

CHYS 3P15 Review Misuse of Science Example: - Teen brains lack empathy - Study about intentionality, not empathy - These results suggest that the neural strategy for thinking about intentions changes between adolescence and adulthood Types of Research 1. Basic o Basic questions about fundamental behaviour o Example: cross-cultural comparisons of parenting styles 2. Applied o Assessment: Identify developmentally important characteristics in an at-risk target population  Example: Standford-Binet used to identify cognitive delays in children o Intervention: to alter the environment in ways that may prevent, correct or reduce problems  Example: Head Start o Socially important issues: evident relevant to the resolution of pragmatically important issues  Example: accuracy of children’s testimony in cases of abuse; impact of sexual orientation of parents on child development 3. Program Evaluation o Study the effectiveness of methods designed to make positive social changes  Example: teen parent attachment intervention  Example: SNAP – John Howard Society Research Design: 1. Descriptive o Describes context or situation o Methodologies (surveys, interviews, naturalistic observation) o Quantitative vs. qualitative 2. Correlational o Measurement of two or more relevant variables and assesses the relationship between/among those variables o Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (sign represents direction, number represents strength) o Predictive power of associations o Example:  Weight and Huston  Studied TV viewing of preschool kids in low income areas  Kids were 2 or 4 at start of study and 5 or 7 at end  Parents recorded kids behaviour  Every year, kids took a variety of cognitive achievement tests  Kids who watched educational TV tended to have higher cognitive achievement scores 3. Experimental o Assuming all other variables are controlled, experiments manipulate one variable in specifically set-up laboratory situations, and then observe outcomes o This method is used when seeking the cause of particular outcomes o Example”  Friedrich and Stein  Kids in nursery school, examined for 3 weeks to get baseline level of aggression  Then over a 4 week period, kids watched 30 min of TV a day  3 Groups: aggressive, gentle, neutral  Recorded kids aggressive behaviour following TV exposure  Kids high in baseline aggression acted more aggressively after watching Batman then the other two types  Kids in low aggression showed no change after watching batman Research Hypothesis - Prediction that is specific and falsifiable regarding the relationship between two or more variables - Experimental research: o Independent variable (created/manipulated by experimenter) o Dependent variable (observed outcomes presumably caused by the IV) o Correlational research: predictor and outcome variables - Where does a research hypothesis come from o Untested aspects of theories o Life experiences/questions (inductive) o Conflicting results in previous research o Needs of society/community Literature Review - Primary Sources - Secondary Sources - Grey literature (not peer reviewed published reports often by community organizations or government organizations Theory-driven research - Lit review should result in a basic understanding of relevant theory to your topic and current research that supports it - Hypothesis should be framed within at least one of these theories What makes a good theory? 1. General: summarize many different outcomes 2. Parsimonious: provide the simplest possible account of outcomes 3. Generative: useful for advancing scientific inquiry (generate ideas for future research) 4. Falsifiable: it is possible to find evidence that does not support the theory 2 must haves of research 1. Scientific merit 2. Ethical soundness o Guidelines and standards are set out by organizations o Individual responsibility of the researcher Rights of all research participants - Informed consent prior to participating in research - Right to freedom from harm as a result of research - Confidentiality to the information obtained in research Ethical Reporting - Proper credit given for ideas - Reports include comprehensive, truthful description of methodology and analysis - Researchers are obligated to publish corrections if an error is found in the existing publication - Dissemination of research (does the public have the right to know?) *Stanford Prison Study* What is a child? - “For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means human being below the age of 18 years old unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier Roles and Responsibilities of researchers – UN guidelines - Expand the discourse outside academic circles – and make it intelligible - Focus on normal as well as pathological aspects of childhood - Learn to use appropriate, rights based methods 14 ethical standards/principles (for children) 1. Non harmful procedures 2. Informed consent 3. Parental consent 4. Additional consent 5. Incentives 6. Deception 7. Anonymity 8. Mutual Responsibility 9. Jeopardy 10. Unforeseen consequences 11. Confidentiality 12. Informing participants 13. Reporting results 14. Implication of findings *Jane Elliot Study* Participatory Research with Children - Research conducted in partnership with children/youth, they provide input into questions, design, reporting and recommendations based on findings - Benefits: o Epistemological benefits:  Provide understandings of complex social phenomena o Ethical benefits  Gives children control over the research process and methods are in tune with children’s ways of seeking and relating to their world Operational definition - Concepts are translated into a specific and measurable form - Measurement operations should be: o Clearly specified o Objective o Repeatable by others - Mono-operation bias: any single operation will almost certainly under represent the target construct Levels of Measurement - Nominal o Assigning a qualitative label to a quantity o Not quantitative - Ordinal o Ordering the observations in terms of magnitude o Is quantitative o The size difference between numbers not clear - Interval scale o Ordered and equidistant (not common in behaviorual science
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