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CHYS 3P15 (6)
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# CHYS 3P15 - Textbook Review for Exam.docx

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School
Brock University
Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course
CHYS 3P15
Professor
Heather Lawford
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing and Inferential StatisticsRandom error any pattern of data that might have been caused by a true relationship between variables might instead have been caused by changeHypothesis Testing Flow Chart 1 Develop research hypothesis 2 Set alpha 3 Calculate power to determine the sample size that is needed 4 Collect data 5 Calculate statistic and pvalue 6 Compare pvalue to alpha 7 Decide to reject or accept the nullInferential statistics use the sample data to draw inferences about the true state of affairs Sampling distribution the distribution of all the possible valuesBinomial distribution sample distribution for events have two equally likely possibilities Null hypothesis the assumption that the observed data reflect only what would be expected under the sampling distributionSignificance level alpha standard that the observed data must meetThe smaller the alpha is the more stringent the standard isProbability value pvalue shows the likelihood of an observed statistic occurring on the basis of the sampling distributionTwosided pvalues take into consideration that unusual outcomes may occur in more than one wayAllow us to interpret statistically significant relationships even if those differences are not in the direction predicted by the research hypothesis Type 1 error when we reject the null when in fact it is true Probability of making a type 1 erroralphaThe researcher never knows for sure whether she or he has made a type 1 errorSetting lower alpha protects from Type 1 errors but doing so may lead us to miss the presence of weak relationshipsType 2 error the mistake of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is really false The probability of making a type 2 error1betaType 2 errors are more common when the power of a statistical test is lowEffect size measures the magnitude of a relationshipSmall10 medium3 and large5
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