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CHYS 2P10 Midterm: CHYS 2P10 STUDY GUIDE 1-5

4 Pages

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Anthony Volk

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find more resources at CHYS 2P10 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 1  Science of Development – ▯science▯ a method of understanding the physical and mental world  Contraryto a lot ofpublishedandpopularbelief, children have generally been viewedin a verysimilar light overthe course of history(with some exceptions)  Childhood is a universal concept  A fact is typically meant to be something that is certainly true but is not the scientific definition  A scientific fact is a phenomenon or observation that is agreed upon by most observers  The common use of fact is labeled as a theory in science  A theory is an idea that attempts to explain facts and observations  Predictions resulting from theories are known as hypotheses  Data (plural of datum) – refers to information gathered by direct observation  Science depends upon the collection of data to test hypotheses  Experimental studies- attempt to isolate the effect of one or more variables on another variable  Correlational studies- examine the relationship between variables  Descriptive studies- gather observed data without attempting to examine the relationship between variables  Studiescan take place eitherin a controlled, laboratorysetting, orthey can take place outside of the lab in the real world(fieldsetting)  Nothing in the universe that math cant describe- itsjust a language • Correlation coefficient- descriptive statistic that isusedtoillustrate the strength and direction ofa relationship between variables - The value of a correlation coefficient ranges between –1 to 1 The closer the correlation is to either –1 or to 1, the stronger the relationship between the two variables • Inferential statistics- used to determine how likely a hypothesis is to be true • Reliability – refers to the agreement between different measurements of the same observation • Validity- measuring what you want to measure • find more resources at find more resources at Lecture2  Nature vsNurture-nurture often gets more credit, itswhat we can control more easilythan nature sowe tendto focuson it more  Dr. Sigmund Freud- three componentsof personality  )d ▯basic urges▯Ego▯rationalcomponent of the mind▯referee▯▯Superego (conscience, morality)  Conflict with the egotryingtocontrolthe idand the superegotriesto make sure that fits onesmorals  Freud believedthat development progressedthrough different stages  Stageswere universal  Successin a stage wasnot required forpassing ontoa laterstage  Changes in environment leadsto stage progression  ErikErikson- believedin psychosocial ratherthan psychosexual forces  Added adult stages to Freuds 5 childhood stages  Strongerinfluence was on culture  Believedin epigensis as the core of development  Possible topass ontoa newstage even ifa current stage ispoorly resolved  Strongemphasison identitydevelopment asan ongoingprocessthroughout development ratherthan personality • Operant conditioning - operant response is a behavior that operates on the environment to produce an effect (typically a positive effect)  Albert Bandura- emphasison learning  Sociallearningtheory–focuses on learningbut broadens the context and scope of different types oflearning  Context influenceslearning  Children forman internalmodelofobserved behaviour  Bobothe doll  JeanPiaget – biological approach  He believedin a general formof evolut
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