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Midterm

CHYS 2P10 Midterm: CHYS 2P10 STUDY GUIDE 1-5 Premium

4 Pages
73 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 2P10
Professor
Anthony Volk
Study Guide
Midterm

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CHYS 2P10 STUDY GUIDE
Lecture 1
Science of Development science a method of understanding the physical
and mental world
Contrary to a lot of published and popular belief, children have generally been
viewed in a very similar light over the course of history (with some
exceptions)
Childhood is a universal concept
A fact is typically meant to be something that is certainly true but is not the
scientific definition
A scientific fact is a phenomenon or observation that is agreed upon by most
observers
The common use of fact is labeled as a theory in science
A theory is an idea that attempts to explain facts and observations
Predictions resulting from theories are known as hypotheses
Data (plural of datum) refers to information gathered by direct observation
Science depends upon the collection of data to test hypotheses
Experimental studies- attempt to isolate the effect of one or more variables
on another variable
Correlational studies- examine the relationship between variables
Descriptive studies- gather observed data without attempting to examine the
relationship between variables
Studies can take place either in a controlled, laboratory setting, or they can
take place outside of the lab in the real world (field setting)
Nothing in the universe that math cant describe- its just a language
Correlation coefficient- descriptive statistic that is used to illustrate the
strength and direction of a relationship between variables - The value of a
correlation coefficient ranges between 1 to 1 The closer the correlation is to either
1 or to 1, the stronger the relationship between the two variables
Inferential statistics- used to determine how likely a hypothesis is to be true
Reliability refers to the agreement between different measurements of the same
observation
Validity- measuring what you want to measure
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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com CHYS 2P10 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 1  Science of Development – ▯science▯ a method of understanding the physical and mental world  Contraryto a lot ofpublishedandpopularbelief, children have generally been viewedin a verysimilar light overthe course of history(with some exceptions)  Childhood is a universal concept  A fact is typically meant to be something that is certainly true but is not the scientific definition  A scientific fact is a phenomenon or observation that is agreed upon by most observers  The common use of fact is labeled as a theory in science  A theory is an idea that attempts to explain facts and observations  Predictions resulting from theories are known as hypotheses  Data (plural of datum) – refers to information gathered by direct observation  Science depends upon the collection of data to test hypotheses  Experimental studies- attempt to isolate the effect of one or more variables on another variable  Correlational studies- examine the relationship between variables  Descriptive studies- gather observed data without attempting to examine the relationship between variables  Studiescan take place eitherin a controlled, laboratorysetting, orthey can take place outside of the lab in the real world(fieldsetting)  Nothing in the universe that math cant describe- itsjust a language • Correlation coefficient- descriptive statistic that isusedtoillustrate the strength and direction ofa relationship between variables - The value of a correlation coefficient ranges between –1 to 1 The closer the correlation is to either –1 or to 1, the stronger the relationship between the two variables • Inferential statistics- used to determine how likely a hypothesis is to be true • Reliability – refers to the agreement between different measurements of the same observation • Validity- measuring what you want to measure • find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Lecture2  Nature vsNurture-nurture often gets more credit, itswhat we can control more easilythan nature sowe tendto focuson it more  Dr. Sigmund Freud- three componentsof personality  )d ▯basic urges▯Ego▯rationalcomponent of the mind▯referee▯▯Superego (conscience, morality)  Conflict with the egotryingtocontrolthe idand the superegotriesto make sure that fits onesmorals  Freud believedthat development progressedthrough different stages  Stageswere universal  Successin a stage wasnot required forpassing ontoa laterstage  Changes in environment leadsto stage progression  ErikErikson- believedin psychosocial ratherthan psychosexual forces  Added adult stages to Freuds 5 childhood stages  Strongerinfluence was on culture  Believedin epigensis as the core of development  Possible topass ontoa newstage even ifa current stage ispoorly resolved  Strongemphasison identitydevelopment asan ongoingprocessthroughout development ratherthan personality • Operant conditioning - operant response is a behavior that operates on the environment to produce an effect (typically a positive effect)  Albert Bandura- emphasison learning  Sociallearningtheory–focuses on learningbut broadens the context and scope of different types oflearning  Context influenceslearning  Children forman internalmodelofobserved behaviour  Bobothe doll  JeanPiaget – biological approach  He believedin a general formof evolut
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