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[CHYS 2P10] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (35 pages long!)Premium

35 pages261 viewsFall 2016

Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 2P10
Professor
Anthony Volk
Study Guide
Final

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Brock U
CHYS 2P10
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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September 9th 2016
CHYS 2P10- Chapter 1: An Introduction to Child Development
Goal is to find out how biological and environmental factors influence
children’s intellectual, social and emotional development.
Developmental researchers studied the children’s growth for more than 30
years.
Results from the study show that environmental and biological factors
combine the development of the child.
Children who show great resilience in the face of adversity are among the
most heartening findings of research within child development.
In Canada prevalence rates for spanking range from 50%- 66%
“Turtle technique” – when children felt angry they were to move away from
other children and retreat to their turtle shell where they could think
through the situation until they were ready to emerge from shell
Plato, Aristotle, Locke, and Rousseau raised basic questions about child
development and proposed interesting hypothesis about them but they
lacked the scientific methods to answer them
Freud and Watson began the movement toward modern researched based
theories of child development
Principles, findings, and methods from child development research are being
applied to improve the quality of children’s lives
Scientific method involves choosing a question, formulating a hypothesis
relevant to the question, developing a method to test the hypothesis and
using data to decide if the hypothesis is correct
The main situations used to gather data about children are interviews,
naturalistic observations and structured observations
Interviews- useful for revealing children’s subjective experience
Naturalistic observations- useful when the primary goal is to describe how
children behave in their everyday environment
Structured observation- useful when the main goal is to describe how
different children react to the identical situation
Experimental designs are valuable for revealing the causes of children’s
behaviour
Data about development can be obtained through, cross-sectional designs
(examining different children of different ages), longitudinal designs
(examining the same children at different ages), or micro genetic designs
(presenting the same children repeated relevant experiences over a
relatively short period in analyzing the change process in detail)
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CHYS 2P10 CHAPTER 3 – Biology and Behavior
Nature and Nurture
Starting point for development is the genotype (the genes inherited at
conception from one’s parents)
Parents and their behavior toward their children are an important part of the
children’s environment
Child’s development is influenced by aspects of the environment he or she
seeks out and the different responses the child’s characteristics and behavior
evoke from other people
Many behavior genetics use heritability estimates to statistically evaluate the
relative contributions of heredity and environment to behavior
Brain Development
The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe- neurons are
the basic units of the brain’s informational system. They transmit
information via electrical signals
Most human part of the human brain is the cortex
Different areas of the cortex are specialized for general behavioral categories
Experience plays a crucial role in the strengthening or elimination of
synapses
Plasticity refers to the fact that nurture is the partner of nature in the normal
development of the brain – this fact makes it possible in certain
circumstances for the brain to rewire itself in response to damage
The ability of the brain to recover from injury depends on the age of the child
The Body: Physical Growth and Development
Humans undergo a prolonged period of physical growth- in which the growth
is uneven and proceeds more rapidly in early life and adolescence
Food preferences begin with innate responses by newborns to basic tastes,
but additional preferences develop as a result of experience.
Problems with the regulation of eating are evident in Canada and United
States, where a crisis of obesity is clearly related to both environmental and
genetic factors
Prevention of under nutrition is needed to allow millions of children to
develop normal brains and bodies
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