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CHYS 2P10 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Eric Lenneberg, 18 Months, Recognition Memory

27 pages99 viewsFall 2016

Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 2P10
Professor
Anthony Volk
Study Guide
Midterm

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CHYS 2P10 Lecture 1-5 Notes
Science of Development
Science is a method of understanding the physical (and mental) world
Differet tha spiritual, a’t e easured
Goals of Developmental Scientists
Describe development
o Normative development
o Ideographic (individual) development
Explain development
o Why do individuals develop differently?
Optimize development
o Apply researh fidigs to real orld
Historical Perspectives
Contrary to a lot of published and popular belief, children have generally been viewed in a very
similar light over the course of history (with some exceptions)
Post-modernist relativism is just silly in this regard- kids ARE different and are treated differently
Egyptian Toys
o Many ancient Egyptian toys found with children
o Girls played with dolls, boys played with horse with wheels (similar to cars)
Historical Examples - Medieval
It was also suggested by some scholars (e.g., Aries) that childhood was not a concept known or
practiced in Medieval Europe because of the extreme death rates and labor demands
It as thought that eause hildre died a lot, people did’t are aout hildre
Not true, they love children
This has since been shown to be false, childhood is a universal concept
Children are born to play
!Kung people
Click language
Most universally similar DNA to the whole world
Oldest people in the world
How children learn: by imitating, by trying
o !Kung Boy Setting Snare
o Toddler Imitating Nearby Mother By Digging For Roots
Yanomamo People
Man With Bow
Yanomamo Toddler With Bow
Children aggression tendencies
Why do kids like touching other people?
Monkeys Grooming
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Yanomamo Boys Grooming
Girls braiding each other hair
Developmental Science
Theories lead to hypotheses
Investigators should be objective when they get independent data
Scientific Method is followed
Investigators must be objective
Data determine merits of theory
Important Terms
A fact is typically meant to be something that is certainly true
However, this is NOT the scientific definition of a fact
Instead, a scientific fact is a phenomenon or observation that is agreed upon by most observers
Explaining Science
I thik this is here o-scientists keep getting their ideas of "climate change religion" - they
believe they're being asked to "trust" or "have faith" in the science as if it were a Revelation of
Truth, when in fact it's plain to check and re-check and re-measure if so desired for anyone with
the time, resources and intelligence to do so.
The genius of the scientific method is that there is no need for faith - you "trust" scientists only
if you can't be bothered to double check their work.”
Theories & Hypotheses
The common use of fact (e.g., gravity is a fact), is correctly labeled as a theory in science
A theory is an idea that attempts to account for/explain facts/observations. Thus, every so-
called scientific fact is actually a theory
Predictions resulting from theories are known as hypotheses
Datum
Data (plural of datum) refers to information gathered by direct observation (of either a human
or some measuring instrument)
Science depends upon the collection of data to test hypotheses
Science can also re-analyze data, once recorded, it does not change
Experimental Study
Experimental studies attempt to isolate the effect of one or more variables (independent
variables) on another variable (dependent variable)
All other variables/influences are held constant
Thus, any change in the dependent variable must be caused by one or more of the independent
variables
Experimental designs can be within-subjects or between-subjects in nature
In the former, the changes caused by the independent variable are viewed within single
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individuals
A between-subjects design views the changes in different groups
Correlational Study
Correlational studies examine the relationship between variables
A correlational study does not control for all other variables
This eas that ausal iferees a’t e dra fro orrelatioal studies
Also, the direction of causality is not known
o The greatest determinant of success in school is wealth
Descriptive Study
Descriptive studies gather observed data, without attempting to examine the relationships
between variables
Desriptie studies are ee ore liited tha orrelatioal studies i that oe a’t dra
predictions or causal inferences from descriptive studies
Study Settings
Studies can take place either in a controlled, laboratory setting, or they can take place outside of
the lab in the real world (field setting)
The former is typically reserved for experimental designs, the latter are typically correlational or
descriptive in nature
If you assess kids o ullyig hile athig the, they o’t ully eah other eause they
do’t at to get i troule, o’t at atural
Collecting Data
1. Observational methods typically take the form of either naturalistic observation (measuring with
the senses or an instrument) or testing (stimulating the animal/human to respond)
2. Self-report measures are either verbal (interview) or written (questionnaire)
Uniquely Developmental Desigsn
Missing cross sectional
Missing longitudinal
Sequential design
o Combination of corss-sectional and longitudinal
o Participants of iddfferents ags selectated as outset
o All partiicapnts obsereved repaitedly for a period of time
Microgenetic design missing
Data Analysis
Descriptive statistics are used to describe the data using numerical terms
Math is nothing more, or less, than the universal language of the universe
There is NOTHING i the uierse that ath a’t desrie, it’s just a laguage
Translation and comprehension are problems, but not limitations
Correlation Coefficient
The correlation coefficient is descriptive statistic that is used to illustrate the strength and
direction of a relationship between two variables
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