COMM 2P98 Study Guide - Final Guide: Protectionism, Mass Society, Realnetworks

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Published on 15 Apr 2017
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2P98 Exam Review
1. What is the relationship between culture and media industries? Defend your
answer with reference to at least three of the following: the textbook; Horkheimer &
Adorno; Ebanda de B’béri & Middlebrook; Habermas; and/or Doyle
The Culture Industry
Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno
Under monopoly all mass culture is identical, and the lines of its artificial
framework begin to show through.
Movies and radio need no longer pretend to be art. The truth that they are just
business is made into an ideology in order to justify the rubbish they deliberately
produce.
The basis on which technology acquires power over society is the power of those
whose economic hold over society is greatest.
All participants are listeners and authoritatively subject them to broadcast
programs, which are exactly the same.
Any trace of spontaneity from the public in official broadcasting is controlled and
absorbed by talent scouts, studio competitions and official programs of every kind
selected by professionals. Talented performers belong to the industry long before
it displays them, otherwise they would not be so eager to fit in.
There is an economic mechanism used for the selection of material and an
agreement/determination of all executive authorities not to produce or sanction
anything that in any way differs form their own rules, their own ideas about
consumers or above all themselves.
Culture monopolies are weak and dependent in comparison to the most powerful
sectors of industry. They cannot afford to neglect their appeasement of the real
holders of power if their sphere of activity in mass society is not to undergo a
series of purges.
The dependence of the most powerful broadcasting company on the electrical
industry, or of the motion picture industry on the banks is characteristic of the
whole sphere, whose individual branches are themselves economically
interwoven.
Marked differentiations such as those of A and B films, or of stories in magazines
in different price ranges, depend not so much on subject matter as on classifying,
organizing and labeling consumers. Something is provided for all so that none
may escape; the distinctions are emphasized and extended.
The public is catered for with a hierarchal range of mass-produced products of
varying quality. Everybody must choose the category of mass product turned out
for his type. Consumers appear as statistics on research organization charts and
are divided by income groups.
There is nothing left for the consumer to classify. Producers have done it for him.
The short interval sequence which effective in a hit song…etc. are all ready made
clichés to be slotted in anywhere
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Real Life is becoming indistinguishable form the movies. Sound film leaves no
room for imagination or reflection by audience. The film forces its victims to
equate it directly with reality.
The triumph of advertising in the culture industry is that consumers feel
compelled to buy and use its products even though they see through them.
Culture industry now controls how we construct our ideologies and act as models
for personality.
The Paradox of National Identity
Ebanda de B’béri & Middlebrook
As individuals increasingly position themselves within and across a variety of
identities capital seizes upon such differences in order to create new markets and
products.
It is known that television occupies a privileged position in most Canadian
households, and its narratives, images and stories provide viewers with a
framework for thinking about and making sense of the world.
Television and other mass media have the power to represent and thus to
articulate a framework within which viewers consider the images they encounter.
This framework also provides the conditions for examining the ways in which
practices of identity are being worked and re-worked to become “invisible” or
naturalized.
According to Habermas, its ideal form, status of the contributor is not relevant in
the public sphere but only the quality of his or her ideas are important.
In this article analyzing Canadian Idol we see that the producers of the show
ultimately chose where the auditions where held. They chose more appealing and
well-known locations to produce their own aesthetic identity of Canada. (By
doing this they were appealing to a more urban demographic of viewers rather
than the Nation as a whole who ultimately construct Canada’s identity)
As stated by Michael Ignatieff, Nationalism can only survive by allowing cultural
differences to prosper within national boundaries. So basically Canadian idol
attempts to create a sense of nationalism through their selection process of
narrowing down who wins by excluding non-urban identities.
Habermas also said that the public sphere is one form where an entire society
participates in discussion regarding issues of common concern.
Based on the comments made on the discussion board each province tends to have
their own identity instead of a unified Canadian identity amongst all provinces,
which created tensions through public discourse. The message board created a
space where these separate parties could discuss regional and national identity
tensions from within the show.
Habermas explained that the public sphere needs to exist outside of the state,
church and other institutions in order for discussion for happen more freely.
oMessage boards show how discussion can exist within the private sphere
and address the public
It is also argued that the boundary between public and private sphere is socially
constructed and changes over time.
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oEx. Provinces unaware of newfie slanger, fraser discusses that when
people reveal their beliefs in public others become aware and understand.
The Public Sphere: An encyclopedia Article
Jürgen Habermas
The Public Sphere
The public sphere is the realm of our social life and where public opinion can be
formed
In a larger public body, communication requires specific means for transmitting
information and influencing those who receive it
Today newspapers, magazines, radio, and television are the media of the public
sphere
The public sphere mediates society and state
Liberal Model of the Public Sphere
Newspapers changed from institutions for the publication of news into bearers
and leaders of public opinion – weapons of party politics
A new elements emerged between the gathering and publication of news – the
editorial staff
Newspaper publishers changed from vendors of recent news to dealers of public
opinion
The press is a mediator and intensifier of public discussion, no longer a medium
to just spread news
In the transition from the literary journalism of private individuals to the public
services of mass media the public sphere was changed by the increase in private
interests which received prominence in the mass media
Public Sphere in the Social Welfare State Mass Democracy
Because of the diffusion of press and propaganda, the public body expanded
beyond the bounds of the bourgeoisie
The public sphere is now a competition of interests
Social organizations that deal with the state act in the political public sphere
through the agency of political parties or directly in connection with the public
administration
Social powers now assume political functions leading to a “refeudalizaiton” of the
public sphere
Large organizations must assure themselves of support from the mass population
through a display of openness
The idea of the public sphere as a mass democracy calls for a rational
reorganization of social and political power under mutual control of rival
organizations committed to the public sphere in their internal structure and
relations with the state and each other.
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Document Summary

Defend your answer with reference to at least three of the following: the textbook; horkheimer & Adorno; ebanda de b"b ri & middlebrook; habermas; and/or doyle. The truth that they are just business is made into an ideology in order to justify the rubbish they deliberately produce. All participants are listeners and authoritatively subject them to broadcast programs, which are exactly the same. Sound film leaves no room for imagination or reflection by audience. As stated by michael ignatieff, nationalism can only survive by allowing cultural differences to prosper within national boundaries. Provinces unaware of newfie slanger, fraser discusses that when people reveal their beliefs in public others become aware and understand. Explain your answer with reference to four of the following: asquith & hearn; smythe; skinner; eamon; Audience power versus public needs: five arguments against ratings . 2 arguments against the rating system: reasons for questionable accuracy of ratings and ways in which ratings have been misused by broadcasters.

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