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EDUC 4P04 (2)


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Brock University
Debra Harwood

Monitor: Ongoing observation and documentation to assess children’s strengths, needs, and interests (assessment part of monitoring process) - Layers of information - Rich and rigorous evidence - Based on children demonstrating their understanding by doing, showing, representing, telling - Based on understanding the sequence of development - Informs practice - Not measurement of discrete skills - Not measurement out of context - Not focus on what the child can’t do or doesn’t know Evaluation: Process of making judgments and forming decisions based on the evidence - Judgment and interpretation of monitoring information to determine the child’s progress in achieving the overall essential outcomes - Young children need ample time to demonstrate their achievement - Variety of learning opportunities that are DAP and within their range of ZPD - Considers variety of factors (time of day, situation, type of question asked, previous experience, language of instruction) - Compare assessment/program against standard - Big ideas regarding quality - Outcome-determined quality-do early programs work? - Judgment based against a standard Reporting: Process of communicating to parents based on monitoring and evaluations - Regular reports of progress - Not just a summative report - Indicates child’s growth and achievement - Narrative reports and next steps Summative: Final assessment of what child has learned (end of unit) - Assessment of learning - Used at end of time period to determine if child has met certain objectives and to confirm mastery of information or skills Diagnostic: Teacher investigates child’s ability in specific objectives; assesses entry points (eg/ have child sort objects based on colors) - Assess student’s entry point - Scaffold plans for getting student to next level - New skill/learning - Eg/ K-W-L-M chart - Eg/ mind map, word webs, Venn diagrams Formative: Assessment practices to determine how children are progressing toward mastery of objects Authentic: assessment that has some real connection to the real world-meaningful context - Formative assessment (assessment for/as learning) - Ongoing process of documenting and evaluating growth and development over time using real-life situations (guide behaviour, activities, or experiences) - Children assess own understanding metacognitive aspect of learning Performance: child demonstrates what they know through performance of a task or activity Alternative: allows child to produce a response (authentic and performance – both types of alternative) Assessment: process of determining, through observation or testing, and individual’s traits or behaviours, a program’s characteristics or the properties of some other entity, and then assigning a number, rating, or score to that determination - Observations and documentation help to create a holistic picture of children’s experiences, development and learning, and help to support planning that is meaningful to each child - Process of gathering information from a variety of sources (including assignments, day-to-day observations and conversations/conferences, demonstrations, projects, performances, and tests) that accurately reflect how well a student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a subject - Providing students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement - Process of judging the quality of student work on the basis of established criteria Assessment should: - Use multiple sources of information - Benefit the child and improve learning - Involve the child and family - Be fair for all children Challenges to Assessment - Language skills - Comprehension skills - Appropriateness of testing young children - Cultural and language differences between children and standard assessments - Concerns about testing children with special needs - Great variability in development among children Assessment of learning : involves working with the range of available evidence that enables teacher’s and others to check on students’ progress and using this information in a number of ways Assessment for learning: all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged Assessment as learning: about reflecting on evidence of learning. This is part of the cycle of assessment where pupils and staff set learning goals, share learning intentions and success criteria, and evaluate their learning through dialogue and self and peer assessment Observation: a systematic process of watching and listening to children and recording their behaviour in a meaningful way for future use - Systematic-planned order with rational connection - Process-ongoing, continual, recursive - Watching and listening-fiving voice to children Why observe? - To observe growth and development - Observe the group as a while - Determine how students engage/learn with certain activities or equipment - Foster self-development as a teacher - Get a sense of direction of classroom/program planning - Get a balanced picture of each student How to observe 1. Narratives: running record/anecdotal - Written sequential account of what is perceived - Running Record o Non participant observer o Observer records what child says and does in sequence o Observe 1 child o Open-ended o Detailed o Naturalistic o Aims to be as objective as possible - Advantages of Running Record o Anyone can do it o Less chance for bias as you record behaviours as they occur o Can be used by other professionals o Records all behaviour even unanticipated o Highlights need for further investigation and/or assessment - Disadvantages of Running Record o Time consuming o Requires good command of language o Making assumptions about what you see o Detached observer o Only 1 child at a time can be observed - Anecdotal o May focus on more than 1 child o Observer chooses what to observe and record o Recorded after observation o Highlights of the action o Frequently recorded as series of occurrences o Participatory or non-participatory o Aims to be as objective as possible - Advantages of Anecdotal o Easy to record o Quick snapshot o Efficient o Look and record several behaviours quickly o Observer can still participate with children o Can provide baseline data on child - Disadvantages of Anectodal o Observer decides which behaviours are pertinent o Increases chance of observer bias (since done after the fact) o Relies on observer’s memory o Insufficient contextual information o Requires skill o Hard to resist mixing opinion with observed information 2. Samplings - Examples of behaviour are recorded as they occur - Examples of behaviour are recorded at regular intervals - Work samples are collected - Event Sampling o Recording frequency, duration, causality, severity or triggers of specific events or target behaviours o Frequently used to analyze behaviours that present a challenge o ABC Format  Antecedent: what happene
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