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EDUC 8P17 - Quiz 1

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Mirjana Bajovic

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EDUC 8P17 – Quiz 1 Professional Knowledge and Skills - Knowledge of their subject matter - Instructional strategies - Assessment strategies - Goal setting and instructional skills - Classroom management skills - Motivational skills - Communication skills - Learning environments - Working with cultural diversity - Technology skills Commitment - Investment of time and effort - Confidence in their self-efficacy - Positive attitude and enthusiasm in the classroom - Caring concern for their students Professional Growth - Develop a positive identity - Seek advice from competent experienced teachers - Life-long learning - Repertoire of effective resources and supports - Reflective: learn from experience - Active members of learning communities Importance of classroom management - The most well-designed and thoroughly prepared lesson has no chance of success if the instructor cannot manage the classroom and students‟ behaviour effectively. - More of a teacher‟s time is spent managing behavioural and social problems than actually teaching. - Teachers who understand the critical nature of the affective domain are in a much better position to work with disruptive students - Stress related to classroom management is one of the most influential factors in failure among novice teachers - Teachers who manage classroom effectively report that they enjoy teaching and feel confident in their ability to affect student achievement - Teachers‟ actions have twice the impact on student achievement as do school policies on curriculum and assessment, staff collegiality or community involvement Calm Model 1. Consider o Does the behaviour change, affect or disrupt the classroom learning environment, teachers or students? 2. Act o Once the behaviour has become a distracting force for the teacher, the next level of interaction is introduced 3. Listen o Important to lessen the use of invasive responses in dealing with a situation that requires action o 3 broad stages o 1. Uses action that will not affect the flow of learning o 2. Must make brief interruption o 3. Must interrupt the process to address the misbehaviour 4. Manage o Manage the milieu to quickly return to an effective learning environment Teacher sources of influence on student behavior - Referent power o Students behave as the teacher wishes because they like the teacher as a person o 2 requirements  Teachers must perceive that students like them  Teachers must communicate that they care about the students o Should not be confused as being friends with students o Not possible or wise to use this all the time - Expert power o Students behave as the teacher wishes because they view the teacher as someone who is knowledgeable o 2 requirements  Students must believe the teacher is knowledgeable  Must value learning what the teacher is teaching o Best applied to students beyond the primary goals - Legitimate power o Seeks to influence students through legitimate power expects students to behave properly because the teacher has the legal and formal authority for maintaining appropriate behaviours o Must fit professional image o Students are less likely to be influenced by legitimate power than 30-40 years ago - Reward and Coercive power o May seem like two powers, but really two sides of the same coin o Based on behavioural notions of learning o 4 requirements  Must be consistent in assigning and withholding rewards  Must see connection between behaviour and consequence  Must be perceived as rewards/punishments by students  See application as fair and reasonable o Cannot be used all the time o Difficult to apply to older students Management Models - Student-directed o Primary goal of schooling is to prepare students for life in a democracy o Students allowed to make many decisions o To create this  Student ownership – how room is decorated, share responsibility  Student choice – make good choice through opportunity  Community building – get students to get to know each other  Conflict resolution and problem solving – conflict is inevitable to find way to fix - Collaborative Management o The belief that the control of student behavior in the classroom is the joint responsibility of student and teacher o Goal of classroom management is to develop a well-organized classroom in which students are:  Engaged in learning activities  Usually successful  Respectful of teacher/other students  Co-operate in classroom guidelines - Teacher directed management o The belief that students become good decision makers by internalizing rules and guidelines for their behavior that are provided by a responsible and caring teacher o Students are cooperating and engaged in all activities o Teacher makes all the major decisions o Students may be given a role to implement teacher decisions o Conflict is seen as threatening, non-productive and disruptive of the learning process Goals of classroom management 1. To help students spend more time on learning and less time in non-goal directed activity 2. To prevent students from developing academic and emotional problems The Physical Environment 1. Check out the overall appearance. - Does the appearance of the room convey a sense of order and organization? Is unnecessary clutter eliminated? Does the teacher‟s desk reflect the standard established for the students 2. Manage materials for efficiency. - Frequently used supplies should be readily accessible to minimize distractions and facilitate clean-up. 3. Arrange desks to maximize control. - Move desks forward and to the side to create wide walkways. Consider the “interior loop” and “action zone”. 4. Ensure all students can easily be seen. - Effective monitoring requires clear lines of sight between students desks, instructional areas work areas, and the teacher. 5. Consider seating placement carefully. - Some students will have particular requirements for seat location because of special learning needs. Others require closer proximity to the teacher. What do effective teachers do? - Establish clear expectations and consequences  Describe the agreements teachers and students make regarding the types of behaviors that help a classroom be a safe community of learners  Discuss in the first week of school to help students understand - Establish clear learning goals - Manage transitions - Prevent misbehaviors - Maintain group focus - Consistent, assertive and in-charge - Available and visible - Use equitable and positive classroom behaviors - Establish positive relationships with students Rules should be: • Reasonable and necessary • Understandable to students (clear, specific) • Doable and enforceable • Consistent with school rules and instructional goals • Manageable number (about 5) • Stated positively • Described in behavioural terms • Consistent with teacher beliefs about how students learn best • Posted and communicated to students, parents and other teachers • Taught and re-taught Nononsense Approach 1. Analyzing classroom environment to determine the necessary rules and routines needed to protect teaching, learning, overall safety 2. Clearly communicating the rules and rationales to students 3. Obtaining students commitments to abide by the rules 4. Teaching and evaluating students understanding of the rules 5. Enforcing each rule consistently with natural or logic consequences 4 sets of skills 1. Forming skills  Initial set of management skills (use quiet voices, move into groups quietly) 2. Functioning skills  Group management skills (staying focused, expressing support, accepting others) 3. Formulating skills  Set of behaviours to help students to process material mentally (summarizing key points, seek elaboration) 4. Formenting skills  Set of skills needed to resolve cognitive conflicts that arise within the group (asking for justification, extending ideas) Natural Consequences - occur without anyone‟s intervention, as a result of behaviour:  Foot injury due to walking barefoot  Missed the bus because of lateness  Low grade because of failure to study  Some natural consequences have safety implications, can take a long time to occur, are not evident to the student at the time Logical Consequences - Directly and rationally related to the behaviour but usually involve the intervention of another person.  Finance charge for late payment of a bill  Ticket for a traffic violation  Clean up the mess made  Called on only when hand is raised  Leave the group if disturbing others Contrived consequences - More commonly understood as punishment designed to cause discomfort rather than a logical consequence.  Canceling student‟s school trip due to no homework  Writing out lines 100 times  Sarcasm, yelling Establish Routines  Routines are ways of getting class activities done. They serve to „routinize‟ tasks for continuity, predictability, and time saving.  Students need to be trained to recognize and use class procedures in the first week(s) of school.  The key to success is consistency! Some procedures may be negotiable, other are non-negotiable. You decide!  Some procedures may need consequences for violations. If a procedure really isn‟t working for you and the class, discuss it and change it with them. Teaching routines 1. Give a simple definition 2. Give reasons why 3. Demonstrate step by step 4. Develop cues if needed 5. Rehearse the procedure 6. Give feedback individually and to class 7. Re-teach until “perfect” Class-Running Routines - Administrative Routines – taking attendance, collecting money, forms - Routines for student movement – entering and leaving the room at start/end of day, washroom, computer room, gym, getting materials, pencils sharpened, using learning centres - Housekeeping Routines – cleaning desks, storing personal items, maintaining storage areas, etc. More routines - Lesson-Running Routines - distributing materials, preparing written work in class, collecting and returning assignments and homework, recording assignments and homework - Interaction Routines - Talk between teacher and students – during whole-class lessons, small groups, when teacher/students need attention - Talk among students – during seatwork, free-time, transitions, other times (visitors, loud speaker announcements) Managing Transitions  The largest number of behaviour problems occur during transitions. 30-40 transitions per day take up approximately 15% of class time.  Strategies to consider:  Model, train, practice  Overcorrecting  Prepare in advance  Visual cues  Precise instructions (when, what, who)  Challenges and motivators  Simple rapport building activities:  Smile  Use students names  Greet them in the hallway  Meet students at the door  Use courtesy language  Demonstrate personal interest  Use humour and enthusiasm  Hold regular class meetings Defining Behavioural Problems 1. Interferes with the teaching act 2. Interferes with the rights of others to learn 3. Is psychologically or physically unsafe 4. Destroys property Development – the pattern of biological, cognitive and socio-emotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span Teacher must 1. Not expect students to think/act as they did eyars ago 2. Not demand respect soley based on title/position 3. Understand ongoing societal changes and influence on students these changes have 4. Understand the methods and behaviours young people use to find their place in today‟s society Maslow‟s hierarchy 3 major theorists 1. Piaget – role of challenge, transforming and organizing knowledge  Sensorimotor: 0-2 – use of sense to know environment  Preoperational: P/J – manipulate groups of objects, reduce egocentrism  Concrete Operations: I – assign operational tasks  Formal Operations: S – Propose problems, suggest alternative approached, hierarchical outlining 2. Case‟s Neo-Piagetian Theory – importance of practice, collaboration and social interaction - Combines Piaget‟s theory with more current concepts  Sensorimotor stage: 0-1 ½ years  Interrelational stage: 1 ½ - 5 years  Dimensional stage: 5-11 years  Vectorial stage: 11-19 years - Stages are a function of more efficient working memory:  Myelination-synaptic growth and pruning  Automatization through practise  Social experiences and cultural variation  The development of central conceptual structures 3. Vygotsky‟s theory – notion of readiness and scaffolding - Zone of proximal development - Scaffolding  Teacher adjusts the level of support as performance rises.Examples of ways in which teachers might scaffold a new and difficult task:  Demonstrating the proper performance of the task in a way that students can easily imitate  Dividing the task into several smaller, simpler pieces  Providing a structure, set of steps, or guidelines for performing the task  Keeping students‟ attention focused on the relevant aspects of the task  Giving frequent feedback about how students are progressing Kohlberg‟s Stages of Moral Development - Preconvectional (before age 9)  Moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments - Conventional (early adolescence)  Internal standards are imposed by others - Postconventional  Morality is internal, not based on external standards Kohlbergs 6 levels of moral reasoning 1. Punishment – obedience 2. Exchange of favours 3. Good boy – nice girl 4. Law and order 5. Social contract 6. Universal ethical principles Morality and Adult-Child Relationships - Improving Students Internal Control 1. value and em
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