Ballad—A form of verse to be sung or recited, comes from the oral tradition and
folk culture. Characterized by repetitive and simple dictation, action moves
forwarded by dialogue rather than description; contains supernatural,
mysterious events. At the bottom of the hierarchy of the literature hierarchy—
associated with the lower class.
Example: William Wordsworth “The Lyrical Ballad”—uses the ballad to
exemplify what a good poem is. By using a ballad, Wordsworth is challenging
the idea of what everybody thinks about poetry by using a form that is at the
bottom of the genre hierarchy, and arguing for its importance
Lyric—A short-non narrative poem. It is the opposite of what a ballad is,
because it focuses on state of feelings, and not on the narrative itself.
Example: William Wordsworth “The Lyrical Ballad”, Tension of narrative and
Topographical Poetry—A form of poetry that praises a particular place. Topos
Example: William Wordsworth “Lines Written (or Composed) a Few Miles
above Tintern Abbey, on Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour, July 13,
1798. Set on Tintern Abbey.
Romantic Literacy/Romanticism—(1785-1832) The term Romanticism was given
years later to describe the writer and the movement. We are not talking about
romance or Medieval romance. The writer were influence by medieval writers
like Chaucer and Shakespeare. They were reacting against 18th century writer
like Alexander Pope, and Jonathan Swift, emphasis on classical models and
literary decorum. The movement shows a new attention to childhood and
children, that we did not see before in later centuries . Influence by the ideals of
the French Revolution, ideals of democracy, individual rights, rejection of
hierarchy, idea of common men as equal. Section One—Terms
Example: William Blake Contemporary of Wordsworth,“Songs of Innocence
and Experience”, series of poems about innocence/childhood and
experience/adulthood. /Wordsworth “Tintern Abbey” his poem focuses on
Romanticism ides of nature as a form of religion. Secular, nature takes the role
of god. Focuses on childhood experiences as he remembers them.
Childhood, a new idea brought up by the Enlightenment philosophers like
Novels—Considered as the lowest of the literature hierarchy. Largely popular
form of cultural production among common people. A genre where women
writers had a lot of access, and people who were barred from formal education
Example: Jane Austen “Pride and Prejudice” — follows the convention of the
novel of its age. A novel about the marriage plot, ends in marriage. Despite
following convention, Austen is able to tackle issues of class, and women
Epic Poem— is a genre of classical poetry. A long narrative poem, follow
convention like the invocation of a muse. Classical poems like Homer’s Odyssey
set the conventions.
Example: Willliam Wordsworth “ The Prelude” is an epic poem that adapts to
the epics conventions. But unlike the epic, which almost always start in the
middle of the action, The Prelude does not moved in chronological order.
Instead it moves through the past and the present/Elizabeth Barrett Browning
“Aurora Leigh” , tries to argue for the importance of poetry and attempts to