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ETHC 3P82- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 27 pages long!)


Department
Ethics
Course Code
ETHC 3P82
Professor
Yasanthi Perera
Study Guide
Midterm

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Brock U
ETHC 3P82
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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- Ethical Frameworks
Utilitarianism
Ethical Frameworks
An ethical framework: An attempt to provide a systematic answer to the fundamental
ethical question:
How should human beings live their lives?
Ethical frameworks provide reasons to support their answers.
Consequences Utilitarianism
Principles Deontology (which includes Kantianism, Rights,
Justice & Fairness)
Personal character Virtue Ethics
Utilitarianism:
Making decisions based on consequences
Consequentialist/ teleological theory 󵜢󵜈󵛹󵜀󵜃󵜇󵜣 󵜁󵛹a󵜂󵜇 󵛹󵜂󵛸󵜇, 󵛷󵜃󵜂󵜇󵛹󵜅󵜉󵛹󵜂󵛷󵛹󵜇
Moral worth of actions/ practices determined by consequences
Evaluating an action on outcomes is appealing. Why?
Utilitarianism:
Making decisions based on consequences
Should act in a way that produce better consequences than the other
alternatives
󵜢B󵛹󵜈󵜈󵛹󵜆 󵛷󵜃󵜂󵜇󵛹󵜅󵜉󵛹󵜂󵛷󵛹󵜇󵜣?
Pleasure and pain (minimize pain and maximize pleasure)
Happiness and unhappiness (minimize unhappiness and
maximize happiness)
Intrinsically valuable human goods Things that promote
human well-being: happiness, health, dignity, integrity,
freedom, respect of all the people affected.
Utilitarianism:
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Making decisions based on consequences
Evaluate actions, policies, options, etc. on basis of costs and benefits imposed
on society
A morally right action produces the greatest amount of good
for the greatest amount of people affected
by the action
i.e. greatest balance of benefits over costs; maximizes
utility
Utility net benefits produced by an action
promote human well-being by minimizing harms and
maximizing benefits for those affected
Utilitarianism: Assessing utility
Assumes ability to measure and calculate net utility and therefore best
alternative
Best alternative the sum total of utilities produced by the act is
greater than the sum total of utilities produced by any other act
Determine and compare utility for alternative courses of
action;
Utility for all persons, not simply the decision-maker; societal/
group welfare
Consequences direct and immediate, as well as indirect, and
all foreseeable future costs and benefits
Utilitarianism: Two forms
Act Utilitarianism:
Act/ situation specific
Act to promote the general welfare in any given situation
Rule Utilitarianism:
Moral rules cannot be compromised
Will the moral rule underlying an action produce more pleasure than pain for
society in the long run
E.g. better to tell the truth than lie
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