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Geo 1f90 Final Exam Review .docx

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Brock University
Chris Fullerton

GEOG 1F90 REVIEW  What is human geography? (Chapter 1) How does place matter?  Why do human geographers study what they do? What are “geographical processes”?  • Geographical processes are phenomena that occur  in place (e.g., gentrification, urban  sprawl, economic development), across space/between places (e.g., migration, commuting,  trade) • Interested in: o where they occur (or don’t occur) o their characteristics o their causes o their impacts o how people respond to them o how to fix problems Urban/ transportation Geography (Chapter 10 &12) 4 Main areas of concern urban geography  1. Urban ecology • social and demographic composition of city districts and neighbourhoods • issues such as culture conflict, neighbourhood change, local politics 2. Urbanism • way of life, attitudes, values, and patterns of behaviour fostered by urban settings  3. Urban systems • interdependent sets of urban settlements within a specified region 1 4. Urban form • physical structure and organization of cities Evolution of urban transportation and urban form (how has residential environment and  shopping centers changed over time) • “The Automobile City Era” after World War II:  • new urban planning techniques: a. segregation of “incompatible” land uses b. reduced densities ­ to avoid “overcrowding” c. emphasis on accommodating automobiles To Summarize... • automobiles’ freedom of movement freed people/firms from many constraints…led to  extreme deconcentration and dispersal that continues today • automobile­orientation of city (esp. in suburbs) reduced viability of travelling by other  modes • for those with cars, automobile provides superior levels of accessibility…other modes  rarely used • for those without cars, automobile­orientation provides inferior levels of accessibility… using non­auto modes tends to be slow, dangerous, and sometimes impossible! Automobile dependence: meaning, characteristics, and consequences • Automobile Dependence: a situation in which “a city develops on the assumption that  automobile use will predominate so that it is given priority in infrastructure and in the  form of urban development” (Newman and Kenworthy 1999: 60) • “Automobile dependent cities” have three main characteristics: automobile­oriented land  use patterns which leads to poor non­automobile transportation choices, thus resulting in  high levels of per capita automobile travel Rural Geography (9 & other readings) What is it? • the study of people, places and environments in rural areas • common topics of study:  • meaning of “rural”  • community/economic development • population trends • land use planning  2 • tourism and recreation • sense of place • sense of community Statistics Canada: • “rural” = centres with a population of less than 1,000 AND fewer than 400 persons per  square kilometre  • includes nucleated settlements and dispersed populations (e.g. farms, scattered housing) • rural geographers generally more concerned about “Rural and Small Town Canada”… 10,000 people or less  What is rural? Types of rural regions? A Typology of Rural Regions  • The “Rural­Urban Fringe”  o rural areas under urban influence o  “urban countryside” / “exurbia” o key characteristic: close economic and functional integration with nearby urban  centres (e.g. commuting, shopping, visiting) • The “Agricultural Hinterland”  o agricultural regions and their associated service centres (towns, villages and  hamlets) • “Remote Hinterlands”  o areas associated with non­agricultural primary economic activities (e.g. mining,  fishing, logging) • “Aboriginal Communities”  o Inuit, Métis and First Nation communities • “Amenity­Based Communities” o areas with natural beauty, proximity to beaches or forests or mountains, and access  to recreation as important characteristics  Population trends: Growing? Shrinking?  • Population decline in rural Canada 3 Exurbanization  • “Exurbanization”: settlement in three general locations:  o rural towns, villages, hamlets  o rural subdivisions  o scattered rural residences  • How has exurbanization become possible?  o increasing affordability of automobiles o improvements in transportation infrastructure o advancements in communications technology o suburbanization of employment  o more employment in the city’s countryside – quality­of­life concerns  • Why are people moving to the RUF?  o lower housing prices o lower property taxes  o desire for a large property o quiet and privacy o to “escape” from crime (real or perceived)  o “amenity value” of country landscape  o perceived higher quality­of­life  • Rural Tourism  o increasingly important component of rural economic development in all rural  regions, but especially the rural­urban fringe o abetted by:  o shorter work weeks o paid vacations o automobile access  How do places market themselves?  • Rural­urban = place of “escape” 4 o sense of place seen as: “spatially, temporally and psychologically distanced” from  everyday urban/suburban life • “Commodification of the Countryside”  selling the countryside and its attributes as  commodities to be consumed. It is based primarily on the marketing and sale of heritage,  tradition and countryside aesthetic • a town’s ability to attract visitors is based on the “place image” (sense of place) it  conveys • selling of a place image may involve: embellishing the truth and taking advantage of  certain groups  • Risks Associated with “Place­myths”: local residents may not appreciate the way their  town is promoted visitors may be disappointed with what they actually experience many  towns are using the same “place images” / “place myths”eventually they all seem the  same! Economic Geography (Chapters 11 & 13) What is economic geography? What is “Economic Geography”?  • “A sub­field of human geography concerned with describing and explaining the varied  places and spaces where economic activities are carried out and circulate.” (Dictionary of  Human Geography)  Development or economical level  What is “Economic Development”? • In theory, economic development leads to changes in: – the structure of a region’s economy (p. 372) • “Good-producing” sector – primary (e.g., agriculture, mining, forestry) – secondary (e.g., manufacturing) • “Service-producing” sector – tertiary (e.g., trade, transport, warehousing) – quaternary (e.g., exchange of information or money) – quinary (e.g., research and higher education) – the forms of economic organization • usually “capitalism” (p. 323) – “economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit” – the availability and use of technology • e.g., Internet access, modern farming equipment – residents’economic well-being • e.g., average incomes – the region’s capacity to improve basic conditions of life and physical infrastructure 5 • e.g., clean water, waste disposal, health care, schools Economic globalization and manufacturing  “Economic Globalization” • “the greater global connectedness of economic activities, through transnational trade,  capital flows and migration”  “ Creative economy” the “creative class” Modernization theory  Barriers to development in peripheral regions  Developmental index • Human Development Index – goes beyond economics – incorporates the “three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge  and a decent standard of living” – Incorporates • life expectancy at birth • Literacy and school enrollment rates • per capita GDP Sustainable development  NOT ON THE EXAM Regional planning Ottawa case study  Aboriginal communities (know definition) Smart growth principles (know definition) Sustainable transportation  “New vision for urban transportation” Millennium development goals  6 Definitions “Transportation Geography”: • a sub­discipline of human geography that “focuses on the movement of people and goods,  the transportation systems designed to facilitate such movement, and the relationship of  transportation to other facets of human geography, such as economic development,  energy, land use, sprawl, environmental degradation, values and culture” (Dictionary of  Human Geography, 2009, p. 773; also cited in textbook, page 346) “Urban Geography”: 7 • “the geographical study of urban spaces and urban ways of being” (Dictionary of Human  Geography, 2009, 784) “Automobile Dependence” • a situation in which “a city develops on the assumption that automobile use will  predominate so that it is given priority in infrastructure and in the form of urban  development” (Newman and Kenworthy 1999: 60) “Big box stores” • retail outlets that are several times larger than the store in the same retail sector also  known as ‘destination’ or ‘category killer’ retailers • customers are attracted to the prices or selection at a particular store, instead of  comparison shopping among thecluster of similar stores within a regional shopping centre  or downtown “Power centre” • An agglomeration of big box retail outlets and other conventionally­sized retail outlets  that typically share a common parking area • Retailers found that by building a large, but inexpensive, store—with a big sign—across  the street from a regional mall they could offer lower prices for the same goods that were  found in the mall “Smart Growth”  • “building urban, suburban and rural communities with housing and transportation choices  near jobs, shops and schools” (Smart Growth America, 2010) • promotes planning at a regional scale to manage land use and transportation systems in  order to achieve a better balance between jobs and housing • argument is that good development patterns can reduce the externalities of growth “New Urbanism”  • development,   urban   revitalization,   and   suburban   reforms   that   create   walkable  neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs • originated in Unit
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