GEOG 3P83 - Textbook Notes for Exam.docx

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15 Apr 2012
Chapter 4: Governance and finance
Successes and Failures
- Most media reports only report failures even though there are many successes
- Example: Philippines raised clean water supplies from 26% to 92%
Significant changes are happening in the balance of influence and wealth around the world
Corruption (because of poor governance and institutional corruption have added to the woes of the
public) is a major problem
Recession in United States affected many people in developing countries especially concerning water
Chapter 7: Dams and diversions
Dams are the most fundamental tools of water engineering.
Create resources by storing water in periods of good supply converting flood hazard into useable
Total water stores in reservoir is around 7000km3
More than 45,000 dams, 1600 in progress in over 150 countries
2/3 of all dams under construction (2003) were in China, Turkey, Japan and Iran
Dams are controversial: destroy as well as create
Serious impacts on rivers and wildlife downstream withholding sediment/nutrients from rivers
blocking migratory fish deoxygenating the water
Although floods do some good, people and animals in certain areas of the world depend on floods
Some dams are “conjunctive” which means that they operate in conjunction with groundwater supplies
- About 20% of worlds electricity is currently hydropowered
- Amounts to 5% of all energy use
- Expanding hydropower could reduce global warming
- Consumes very little water and returns water directly to the river
- Main losses are due to evaporation
- Consumptive losses are much higher in coal fired and nuclear plants
Run-of-river: applied to non-storage or non-impoundment schemes
- Derive the momentum from the natural, or artificially enhanced, gradient the river water flows down
Pump Storage
- Form of hydropower
- Described as a water power battery designed to store energy generated from other electrical sources
- Utilizes surplus energy
3 Gorges Dame
- Yangtze River
- Largest dam in the world
- Plays a vital role in the economic development in China
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- Primarily it uses a hydropower scheme capable of generating 18.2 GW and provides 12% of China’s
electrical needs
- Flood control scheme on a river that has killed millions
o Floods also distpted economic life in major industrial cities destroyed rice, wheat and lotus
fields, etc.
- Improves nagivation and open up the hinterland to manufacturing and trade
- Fourth role is water supply: China has 20% of the world’s population but only 7% of its water
- Dam enhanced local supplies and it will also put a premium on better wastewater treatment
o Pollution was a growing problem even before the dam
- Social Impacts:
o Uprooted 1.5 million people
o Number of towns and factories were diminished
o Impact of tourism
- Environmental Impacts
o Never denied that there would be significant impacts
o Sediment is likely to be a ibig problem
o Wastewater treatment remains a priority
- Beset by climate in which only 8% of natural riverflows occur when
- Hit by frequent droughts
o To address this, Spain has embarked on a number of major dam-building programs since the
2nd world war
- Introduced the National Hydrological Plan
o Diverting water from the Ebro basin to supply agriculture, cities and leisure facilities in the
China: National Strategic Plan
- Plans to embark on the most massive water transfer scheme ever attempted
- Wanted to transfer water from the south to the north
- Also plans to draw from other countries rivers
- Will have major environmental impacts on donor rivers, reducing downstream flow
US and Soviet diversion plans
- American politicians return to the North America Water and Power Alliance (NAWAPA)
o Transfers water from Alaska, the Rockies, Mackenzie River to the Southwest via a canal
o Would provide water, hydropower and improve navigation
Dams are the foundation tool for water management
As populations increase, so dams proliferate to convert floodwaters into usable resources
Chapter 8: Real and Virtual
Water exports expanded quite suddenly with the development of the bottles water industry
Virtual water the water needed to grow crops, food processing
o Used to produce a product
If a country imports food, it is effectively using other countries water and saving its own
Almost every product that is traded has used water in the production process
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