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GEOG 3P83 Midterm Exam Notes

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Jayson Childs

GEOG 3P83 Environmental Importance - Critical to sustain organisms and ecosystems on Earth - Some organisms up to 90% water weight - Necessary for ecosystems to survive - Humans 70-75% of water Strategic - WW2 go after German dams - Remove their water - Used it for their own emissions - Tension between Turkey and Iraq Threats to Fresh Water - Over population: proper water and sanitation - Climate change - Pollution (agriculture, industrial, runoff) - Urban Sprawl - Over fishing - Deforestation (forest degradation, forest fires) Peter Glaick It is an unnecessary crisis - There has been signs of small and large successes Water in the Solar System - Water is a unique substance essential for life - Probably throughout the universe - Earth is special o Water exists in three states o Exists in large quantities (approximately 70%) - Position in solar system allows water to exist in three states Where did water come from? - Originated with icy comets and other cosmic debris - Water in the planet released through outgassing at surface - Overtime as cooling occurred, water collected at surface Global Balance: amount of water has stayed relatively stable over the last 2 billion years Unique Properties - Pure water (no colour, taste or smell) - Water molecule (hydrogen bond) - Readily combine/difficult to separate - Constant movement/interactions - Strong forces of attraction Hydrosphere Distribution - Uneven distribution (50-70 billion people can access less than 1%) Hydrosphere water balance - Closed system - Flows between land/ocean/atmosphere - Described as a positive or negative flow - Global balance for atmosphere = 0 - Global precipitation = global evaporation 97% of water is too salty, 2% is in glaciers and 1% available to us Water Heritage - Develop agriculture and animal domestication - Settlements and population grow so does the need for water (begin to move where it is needed) Middle East: Mesopotamia - 1 place of irrigation - Irrigation has been important for about 6000 years - Low rainfall and two rivers o Unpredictable floods (Tigris & Euphrates) o Made it difficult to manage resource - However they did o Weirs and dams create reservoirs to diver to canals (acted as a drain) o Taxes/laws governed use of water o Organized maintenance of system Egypt - Edges of Sahara - Sustained itself for 5000 years with waters of Nile o No water through rain so all water sources come from Nile - Nile Flooding o Predictable (compared to Mesopotamia) o At peak, flood would cover the entire floodplain o Well watered fields and natural fertilization o Night of the Drop created by Gods for irritation o Important link between society and nile flood o People developed system to measure flood waters - Irrigation o Controlled locally by farmers o Once population increased, they began irrigation o Earliest evidence of water management o Basin irrigation: Earthen banks create basins to hold water o Did not experience problems because of sustainability Petra: - Region: semi-arid and arid landscapes - People developed ingenious water supply - Water challenges and pipes channelled water to cisterns - People used 3 sources of water o Springs from mountains o Rainwater collection system o Well - Multiple system provides security and enough water for pools, gardens, baths and fountains Qanat (Kanat) - Unique development of water resources - Part well/aqueduct/tunnel - Dig down by hang until they hit the water table - Originated in Iran - The idea spread to Persians, Islam, Romans - Still used in many regions as water supply - Advantages o Reduces loss to evaporation o No need for pumps o Can be used as a sustainable resource o Rate of flow controlled naturally o Ability to hold water underground for periods of high droughts Early Greek System - Hydrollic technology further developed by Greeks o Collecting, storing and transporting water o Acropolis: natural defendable and water supply Engineering Marvel - Tunnel of Eupalihos (Samos Islands) o Excavated from both ends o Over a kilometer long th o Built on 6 century BC dug through limestone Roman Water Use - Greatest builders of water distribution system in the ancient world - Aqueducts - Build through the roman empire - Structure still standing - Romans not the first to use aqueducts (but most famous) Aqueducts - Ground level, underground, elevated - Inverted siphon - Variety of material Rome - Cloaca Maxima The Great Drain Massive sewar - Aqueduct to main distribution tank - Lead pipes to distribute water to resident - Merida Spain o Water supply for city nd o Built in 2 century and still used today o Delivered water 17km Alhambra, Sprain (Palace) - Rural residence of the Emirs - Fountains and water basins - Desert oasis Hohokam - Civilization originate around 300 BC AD 1 - Complex irrigation system - No permanent dam structures, nothing to prevent sitting Chaco Anasazi - High deserts of Colorado Plateau - Culture thrived here (6-800 AD until 1250) - Used irrigation and built large stone structures, roads Aztec Empire - Central Mexico - Tenochittian (political, economic, religious center) - Used in water to: build on reclaimed land, farmed the lake, aqueducts Mayan Empire - Change in water availability with Mayan - All but disappeared by 900 AD but reason are not clear Karst: Cenote (Mayan) - Important water source (religious significance) - Modify natural depressions to use as reservoirs Mayan Agriculture - Evidence of intensive agriculture - Evidence of canal system Palengue: new worlds earliest known example of engineered water pressure Machu Picchu Peru - Water supply - City well planned
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